The Relationship between Leader-Member Exchange, Innovative Work Behaviour and Career Satisfaction: A Research in Hotel Enterprises


  • Edip Sabahattin METE
  • Alev SÖKMEN
  • Alptekin SÖKMEN



Leader-member exchange, Career satisfaction, Innovative work behavior, Innovation, Hotel enterprises


This research investigates how hotel employees’ career satisfaction and innovative work behavior are shaped under the framework of their perceptions of leader member exchange based on the notion that the quality of the leader-member exchange relationship has a significant impact on employee behaviors. In this context, this research primarily aims to identify the mediating effect of career satisfaction in the relationship between leader-member exchange and innovative work behavior of hotel employees. Data were collected by applying a questionnaire survey method with
the participation of 423 employees working in 7 hotel enterprises operating in Ankara. The data were analyzed using statistical analysis techniques and correlation and regression methods were employed for testing the research hypotheses. The findings achieved in this research suggest that there is a positive and significant relationship between leader-member exchange and career satisfaction and a positive and significant relationship between leader-member exchange and innovative work behavior as well as the mediating role of career satisfaction.


Abele, A.E., & Spurk, D. (2009). The longitudinal impact of self-efficacy and career goals on objective and subjective career success. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 74, 53–62.

Abele, A.E., Spurk, D., & Volmer, J. (2011). The construct of career success: Measurement issues and an empirical example. Journal for Labour Market Research, 43(3), 196–306.

Adarves-Yorno, I., Postmes, T., & Haslam, S.A. (2007). Creative innovation or crazy irrelevance? The contribution of group norms and social identity to creative behavior. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43, 410-

Agarwal, U. A. (2014). Examining the impact of social exchange relationships on innovative work behaviour. Team Performance Management: An International Journal, 20(3), 102-120.

Altunoglu, A.E., & Gurel, E.B. (2015). Effects of leader–member exchange and perceived organizational support on organizational innovation: The case of Denizli Technopark. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 207, 175–181.

Amabile, T. M., Schatzel, E. A., Moneta, G. B., & Kramer, S. J. (2004). Leader behaviors and the work environment for creativity: Perceived leader support. The Leadership Quarterly, 15(1), 5-32.

Amo, B.W., & Kolvereid, L. (2005). Organizational strategy, individual personality and innovationbehavior. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 13(1), 7-19.

Armstrong-Stassen, M., & Ursel, N. D. (2009). Perceived organizational support, career satisfaction, and the retention of older workers. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 82(1), 201–220.

Barnett, B. R., & Bradley, L. (2007). The impact of organisational support for career development on career satisfaction. The Career Development International, 12(7), 617–636.

Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal Of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173-1182.

Barutçugil, İ. (2004). Stratejik insan kaynakları yönetimi. İstanbul: Kariyer Yayınları.

Bateman, T.S., & Crant, J.M. (1993). The proactive component of organizational behavior: A measure and correlates. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 14(2), 103-118.

Bauer, T. N., & Green, S. G. (1996). Development of leader–member exchange: A longitudinal test. Academy of Management Journal, 39(6), 1538–1567.

Mete, E.S. & Sökmen, A. & Sökmen, A. JOTAGS, 2021, 9(2)653

Bernerth, J. B., Walker, H. J., & Harris, S. G. (2015). Rethinking the benefits and pitfalls of leader-member exchange: A reciprocity versus self-protection perspective. Human Relations, 69(3) 661-684.

Blau, P.M. (1964). Justice in social exchange. Sociological Inquiry, 34, 193-206.

Boudreau, J. W., Boswell, W. R., & Judge, T. A. (2001). Effects of personality on executive career success in the United States and Europe. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 58, 53–81.

Brennan, A. (2017). The mediating role of optimism on the relationship between leader- member exchange (LMX) and employee engagement: Evidence from the Irish further education and training (FET) sector (Doctoral thesis). Waterford Institute of Technology.

Cetin, G., Akova, O., & Kaya, F. (2014). Components of experiential value: Case of hospitality industry. ProcediaSocial and Behavioral Sciences, 150, 1040-1049.

Chan, D. (1998). Functional relations among constructs in the same content domain at different levels of analysis: A typology of composition models. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(2), 234.

Chan, I. Y. S., Liu, A. M. M., & Fellows, R. (2014). Role of leadership in fostering an innovation climate in construction firms. Journal of Management in Engineering, 30(6), 1-7.

Chaurasia, S., & Shukla, A. (2013). The influence of leader-member exchange relations on employee engagement and work role performance. International Journal of Organization Theory and Behavior, 16 (4), 465-493.

Cohen, D., & Prusak, L. (2001). In good company: How social capital makes organizations work. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Cropanzano, R., & Mitchell, M. S. (2005). Social exchange theory: An interdisciplinary review. Journal of Management, 31(6), 874–900.

Crant, J.M. (2000). Proactive behaviour in organizations. Journal of Management, 26, 435-462.

Cummins R.C. (1990). Job stress and the buffering effect of supervisory support. Group & Organization Management, 15(1), 92-104.

Dansereau, F., Graen, G., & Haga, W. J. (1975). A vertical dyad linkage approach to leadership within formal organizations: A longitudinal investigation of the role making process. Organizational Behavior & Human Performance, 13(1), 46–78.

De Jong, J. P., & Den Hartog, D. N. (2007). How leaders influence employees’ innovative behaviour. European Journal of Innovation Management, 10, 41-64.

Dienesch, R. M., & Liden, R. C. (1986). Leader–member exchange model of leadership: A critique and further development. The Academy of Management Review, 11(3), 618–634.

Dinham, S., & Scott, C. (1997). Modelling teacher satisfaction: findings from 892 teaching staff at 71 schools. Paper presented to the American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL, United States.

Dubinsky, A.J., & Skinner, S.J. (1984) Impact of job characteristics on retail sales people’s reactions to their jobs. Journal of Retailing, 60(2), 35–62.

Mete, E.S. & Sökmen, A. & Sökmen, A. JOTAGS, 2021, 9(2)654

Dulebohn, J. H., Bommer, W. H., Liden, R. C., Brouer, R. L., & Ferris, G. R. (2012). A meta-analysis of antecedents and consequences of leader-member exchange: Integrating the past with an eye toward the future. Journal of Management, 38(6), 1715–1759.

Emmerik I.J.H., Euwema, M.C., Geschiere, M., & Schouten, M.F.A.G. (2006). Networking your way through the organization: Gender differences in the relation between network participation and career satisfaction. Women in Management Review, 21(1), 54-66.

Fatima, A., & Khan, M.A. (2017). Do hope foster innovative work behavior through employee engagement and knowledge sharing behavior? A conservation of resources approach using MPLUS tool. Business & Economic Review, 9, 181-212.

Ferres, N., Connel, J., & Travaglione, A. (2004). Co-worker trust as a social catalyst for constructive employee attitudes. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 19(6), 608-622.

Forret, M. L., & Dougherty, T. W. (2004). Networking behaviors and career outcomes: Differences for men and women? Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25(3), 419–437.

Fuller, J., Barnett, Hester, K. and Frey, L. (2007). An exploratory examination of voice behavior from an impression management perspective, Journal of Managerial Issues, 19(1), 134-151.

Gabris, G.T., Grenell, K., Ihrke, D.M., & Kaatz, J. (2000). Managerial innovation at the local level: Some effects of administrative leadership and governing board behavior. Public Productivity and Management Review, 23(4), 486-494.

Gichohi, P. K. (2014). The role of employee engagement in revitalizing creativity and innovation at the workplace: A survey of selected libraries in Meru County – Kenya. Library Philosophy and Practice (E-journal).

Gouldner, A. (1960). The norm of reciprocity. American Sociological Review, 25(2), 161-179.

Graen, G. B. (1976). Role making processes within complex organizations. In M.D. Dunnette (Ed.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 1201-1245). Chicago, IL: Rand-McNally.

Graen, G.B., & Cashman, J. F. (1975). A Role-making model of leadership in formal organizations: A developmental approach. In J.G. Hunt & L. L. Larson (Eds.), Leadership frontiers (pp. 143–65). Kent, OH: Kent State University Press.

Graen, G.B., & Scandura, T.A. (1987). Toward a psychology of dyadic organizing. In Staw, B.M., & Cummings, L.C. (Eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior (pp. 175-209). New York, NY: JAI Press.

Graen, G.B., & Uhl-Bien, M. (1995). Relationship-based approach to leadership: Development of leader-member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership over 25 years: Applying a multi-level multi-domain perspective. The Leadership Quarterly, 6, 219-247.

Granovetter, M.S. (2002). A theoretical agenda for economic sociology. In F.G. Mauro, R. Collins, P. England, & M. Meyer, (Eds.). The new economic sociology: Developments in an emerging field (pp. 35–60). New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.

Mete, E.S. & Sökmen, A. & Sökmen, A. JOTAGS, 2021, 9(2)655

Greenhaus, J. H., Parasuraman, S., & Wormley, W. M. (1990). Effects of race on organizational experiences, job performance evaluations, and career outcomes. Academy of Management Journal, 33, 64–86.

Hall, D.T. (1976). Careers in organizations. Pacific Palisades, CA: Goodyear Publishing.

Handoko, T. H. (2011). Personnel management and human resources. Yogyakarta: BPFE

Hariandja, M. (2002). Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia: Pengadaan, Pengembang‐an, Pengkompensasian, dan Peningkatan Produktivitas Pegawai. Jakarta: Penerbit Grasindo.

Hayes, A. F. (2009). Beyond Baron and Kenny: Statistical mediation analysis in the new millennium. Communication Monographs, 76(4), 408–420.

Hofmans, J., Dries, N., & Pepermans, R. (2008). The career satisfaction scale: Response bias among men and women. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 73, 397–403.

Huang, X., Van de Vliert, E., & Van der Vegt, G. (2005). Breaking the silence culture: Stimulation of participation and employee opinion withholding cross-nationally. Management and Organization Review, 1(3), 459-482.

Islam, N. (2006). A relational study on organizational commitment, career satisfaction, job ınvolvement, job security, and job satisfisfaction in the context of Social Investment Bank Limited (SIBL), An Internship Report Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Bachelor of Business Administration, Independent Univercity, Bangladesh.

Janssen, O. (2000). Job demands, perceptions of effort-reward fariness and innovative work behaviour. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 73, 287–302.

Janssen, O. (2004). How fairness perceptions make innovative behavior more or less stressful. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25(2), 201–215.

Janssen, O., & Van Yperen, N. W. (2004). Employees' goal orientations, the quality of leader-member exchange, and the outcomes of job performance and job satisfaction. Academy of Management Journal, 47(3), 368–384.

Jiang, J., & Klein, G. (2000). Supervisor support and career anchor impact on the career satisfaction of the entrylevel information systems professional. Journal of Management Information Systems, 16(3), 219-240.

Jing-zhou, P., & Wen-xia, Z. (2011). Under dual perspective of work exchange and social exchange: The study of impact of LMX on affective commitment. Nankai Business Review International, 2(4), 402-417.

John, O. P., Naumann, L. P., & Soto, C. J. (2008). Paradigm shift to the integrative Big-Five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and conceptual issues. In O.P. John, R.W. Robins, & L. A. Pervin (Eds.). Handbook of personality: Theory and research (pp. 114–158). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Judge, T.A., Bono, J. E., Thoresen, C.J., & Patton, G.K. 2001 The job satisfaction–job performance relationship: A qualitative and quantitative review. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 376-407.

Judge, T.A., Cable, D.M., Boudreau, J.W., & Bretz, R.D. (1995). An empirical investigation of the predictors of executive career success. Personnel Psychology, 48, 485–519.

Mete, E.S. & Sökmen, A. & Sökmen, A. JOTAGS, 2021, 9(2)656

Kang, H. J., Gatling, A., & Kim, J. (2015). The impact of supervisory support on organizational commitment, career satisfaction, and turnover intention for hospitality frontline employees. Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism, 14(1), 68-89.

Kanter, R.M.K. (1988). When a thousand flowers bloom. In B. Staw & L.L. Cummings (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (pp. 169 – 211). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Kheng, Y.K., June S., & Mahmood, R. (2013). The determinants of innovative work behaviour in the knowledge intensive business services sector in Malaysia. Asia Social Science, 9 (15), 47-59.

Kim, T.H., Hon, A.H.Y., & Crant, J.M. (2009). Proactive Personality, Employee Creativity, and NewcomerOutcomes: A Longitudinal Study. Journal of Business Psychology, 24(1), 93–103.

Kong, H., Cheung, C. & Song, H. (2012). From hotel career management to employees’ career satisfaction: The mediating effect to career competency. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31, 76-85.

Kong, H., Cheung, C., & Zhang, Q. H. (2010). Career management systems: What are China’s state-owned hotels practising? International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality, 22(4), 112-118.

Kram, C.E. (1985). Mentoring at work: Developmental relationships in organisational life. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.

Liden, R.C., & Graen, G. (1980). Generalizability of the vertical dyad linkage model of leadership. Academy of Management Journal, 23, 451–65.

Liden, R.C., & Maslyn, J.M. (1998). Multidimensionality of leader–member exchange: An empirical assessment through scale development. Journal of Management, 24(1), 43–72.

Lin, N. (2002). Social capital: A theory of social structure and action. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Littman‐Ovadia, H., & Steger, M. F. (2010). Character strengths and well‐being among volunteers and employees: Towards an integrative model. Journal of Positive Psychology, 5, 419–430.

Lounsbury, J. W., Steel, R. P., Gibson, L. W., & Drost, A. W. (2008). Personality traits and career satisfaction of human resource professionals. Journal Human Resource Development International, 11, 351-366.

Margaret, Y., Mark, R. H., Charity-Ann, H., & Wendy, C. (2010). The relationship between diversity training, organizational commitment, and career satisfaction. Journal of European Industrial Training, 34(6), 519-538.

Martins, E., & Martins, N. (2002). An organisational culture model to promote creativity and innovation. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 28(4), 58-65.

Mathis, R.L., & Jackson, J.H. (2006). Human resource management (11th ed.). Mason, Ohio: Thomson/SouthWestern.

Matzler, K., & Renzl, B. (2006). The relationship between interpersonal trust, employee satisfaction, and employee loyalty. Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, 17(10), 1261-1271.

McClelland, D. C. (1965). Toward a theory of motive acquisition. American Psychologist, 20(5), 321–333.

Mete, E.S. & Sökmen, A. & Sökmen, A. JOTAGS, 2021, 9(2) 657

McMurray, A. J., Islam, M. M., Sarros, J. C., & Pirola-Merlo, A. (2013). Workplace innovation in a nonprofit organization. Nonprofit Management & Leadership, 23(3), 367–388.

Nauta, A. A., Van Vianen, A., Van der Heijden, B. I. J. M., Van Dam, K., & Willemsen, M. (2009). Understanding the factors that promote employability orientation: The impact of employability culture, career satisfaction, and

role breadth self-efficacy. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 82, 233–251.

Ng, T. W. H., Eby, L. T., Sorensen, K. L., & Feldman, D. C. (2005). Predictors of objective and subjective career success. A meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 58, 367–408.

Ostroff, C. (1992). The relationship between satisfaction, attitudes, and performance: An organizational level analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 963-974

Oukes, T. (2010). Innovative work behaviour: A case study at a tire manufacturer (Bachelor Thesis). Business Administration University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands.

Panuwatwanich, K., Stewart, R. A., & Mohamed, S. (2009). Validation of an empirical model for innovation diffusion in Australian design firms. Construction Innovation, 9(4), 449-467.

Panuwatwanich, K., Stewart, R. A., & Mohamed, S. (2008). The role of climate for innovation in enhancing business performance: The case of design firms. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 15(5), 407-422.

Park, J., Sohn, Y., & Ha, Y. (2016). South Korean salespersons’ calling, job performance and organizational citizenship behavior: The mediating role of occupational self-efficacy. Journal of Career Assessment, 24, 415–428.

Parker, S.K., Williams, H.M., & Turner, N. (2006). Modelling the antecedents of proactive behaviour at work.

Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 636-652.

Peluchette, J. (1993). Subjective career success: The influence of individual difference, family, and organizational variables. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 43(2), 198–208.

Ramamoorthy, N., Flood, P.C., Slattery, T., & Sardessai, R. (2005). Determinants of innovative work behavior: Development and test of an integrated model. Creativity and Innovation Management, 14(2), 142-150

Rosso, B. D., Dekasb, K. H., & Wrzesniewskic, A. (2010). On the meaning of work: A theoretical integration and review. Research in Organizational Behavior, 30, 91–127.

Rotter, J.B. (1954). Social learning and clinical psychology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Sabuncuoğlu, Z. (2012). Uygulamalı insan kaynakları yönetimi (6. Baskı). İstanbul: Beta Yayınları.

Sagas, M., & Cunningham, G.B. (2004). Treatment discrimination in college coaching: Its prevalence and impact on the career success of assistant basketball coaches. International Sports Journal, 8(1), 76-88.

Sakal, Ö., & Yıldız, S. (2015). Relations of individualism and collectivism values and career anchors and career satisfaction. Journal of Yasar University, 10(40), 6612-6623.

Mete, E.S. & Sökmen, A. & Sökmen, A. JOTAGS, 2021, 9(2) 658

Sarros, J. C., Cooper, B. K., & Santora, J. C. (2008). Building a climate for innovation through transformational leadership and organizational culture. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 15(2), 145-158.

Schein, E. H. (1975). How career anchor hold executives to their career paths. Personnel, 52, 11–24.

Scott, S. G., & Bruce, R. A. (1994). Determinants of innovative behavior: A path model of individual innovation in the workplace. Academy of Management Journal, 37(3), 580–607.

Seibert, S.E., Kraimer, M.L., & Liden, R.C. (2001). A social capital theory of career success. Academy of Management Journal, 44, 219-237.

Serva, M.A., Fuller, M.A., & Mayer, R.C. (2005). The reciprocal nature of trust: A longitudinal study of interacting teams. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(6), 625-648.

Sherman, K. E., Kennedy, D. M., Woodard, M. S., & McComb, S. A. (2012). Examining the “Exchange” in leadermember exchange. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 19(4), 407-423.

Souerwine, A. H. (1978). Career strategics: Planning for personal achievement. Management Review, 65, 55–62.

Sparrow, R.T., & Liden, R.C. (2005). Two routes to influence: Integrating leader-member-exchange and network perspectives. Administrative Science Quarterly, 50(4), 505-535.

Spurk, D., Abele, A.E., & Volmer, J. (2011). The career satisfaction scale: Longitudinal measurement invariance and latent growth analysis. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 84, 315–332.

Stoffers, J., & van der Heijden, B. (2009). Towards an HRM model predicting organizational performance by enhancing innovative work behavior: A study among Dutch SMEs in the province of Limburg. Business Leadership Review, 6(4), 1-13.

Sudarmanto, D.P. (2009). Kinerja dan pengembangan kompetensi SDM. Yogyakart: Pustaka Pelajar.

Sudiro, A. (2012). Perencanaan dan pengembangan karier dosen dengan menggunakan pendekatan proaktif dalam mengelola sumber daya manusia, Pidato Pengukuhan Guru Besar, Universitas Brawijaya Malang.

Thibaut, J. W., & Kelley, H. H. (1959). The social psychology of groups. New York, NY: Transaction Publishers.

Thibodeaux, H.F., & Lower, R.H. (1996). Convergence of leader-member exchange andmentoring: An investigation of social influence patterns. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 11(1), 97-114.

Uhl-Bien, M. (2006). Relational leadership theory: Exploring the social processes of leadership and organizing. The Leadership Quarterly, 17(6), 654-676.

Van de Ven, A.H. (1986). Central problems in the management of innovation. Management Science, 32(5), 590– 607.

Wayne, S. J., Liden, R. C., Kraimer, M. L., & Graf, I. K. (1999). The role of human capital, motivation, and supervisor sponsorship to career success. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 20, 577-595.

West, M. A., & Farr, J. L. (1989). Innovation at work: Psychological perspectives. Social Behaviour, 4(1), 15–30.

Mete, E.S. & Sökmen, A. & Sökmen, A. JOTAGS, 2021, 9(2)659

Wickramasinghe, V., & Jayaweera, M. (2010). Impact of career plateau and supervisory support on career satisfaction: A study in offshore outsourced IT firms in Sri Lanka. Career Development International, 15(6),


Xerri, M. (2013). Workplace relationships and the innovative behavior of nursing employees: A social exchange perspective. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 51(1), 103-123.

Yean, T.F., Johari, J., & Yahya, K.K. (2016). The mediating role of learning goal orientation in the relationship between work engagement and innovative work behavior. International Review of Management and Marketing,

, 169-174.

Yeoh, K.K., & Mahmood, R. (2013). The relationship between pro-innovation organizational climate, leader-member

exchange and innovative work behavior: A study among the knowledge workers of the knowledge intensive business services in Malaysia. Business Management Dynamics, 2(8), 15-30.

Yuan, F., & Woodman, R. W. (2010). Innovative behavior in the workplace: The role of performance and image outcome expectations. Academy of Management Journal, 53(2), 323–342.

Yukl, G. (2002), Leadership in organizations (5th ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ, Prentice-Hall.

Zhang, X., Li, N., & Harris, T. B. (2015). Putting non-work ties to work: The case of Guanxi in supervisorsubordinate relationships. The Leadership Quarterly, 26, 37-54.



How to Cite

METE, E. S., SÖKMEN, A., & SÖKMEN, A. (2023). The Relationship between Leader-Member Exchange, Innovative Work Behaviour and Career Satisfaction: A Research in Hotel Enterprises. Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies, 9(2), 638–659.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>