Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies https://jotags.net/index.php/jotags <p>Journal of Tourism and Gastronomy Studies is an academic, refereed, online and open access journal publishing research, review, and theoretical articles in the field of tourism and gastronomy. The journal is published four times a year. The articles to be submitted should be in English or Turkish. Journal of Tourism and Gastronomy Studies welcomes articles from different institutions and countries. All manuscripts submitted to the Journal of Tourism and Gastronomy Studies is sent to the referees after the initial review of the editorial board with respect to formatting and content. Manuscripts must be submitted in accordance with the style of writing specified in the book of “The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th edition).</p> <p><span style="color: #000000; font-family: -apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, 'Segoe UI', Roboto, Oxygen-Sans, Ubuntu, Cantarell, 'Helvetica Neue', sans-serif; font-size: 17.4352px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;"> </span></p> Prof.Dr. İrfan YAZICIOĞLU en-US Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2147-8775 Reflections of Technological Developments on Tourist Guidance: Mobile Tourist Guide Applications https://jotags.net/index.php/jotags/article/view/2067 <p>Technology is spreading to all areas of life day by day and has a significant impact on the tourism system, which consists of many different components. The profession of tourist guiding is also affected by technology and innovation. Advanced GPS-supported map applications, applications that offer detailed, written and audio descriptions of museums and protected areas can now offer tourists the alternative of travelling without a guide, even in destinations they visit for the first time. In this study, the effects of mobile tourist guide applications on the field of profession were examined by giving sample technological applications. The research conducted is a review study and the applications related to the subject in the field have been examined. The most preferred or most common 3 mobile tourist guide applications in the field were evaluated together with their features and their effects on the guiding profession. It has been determined that mobile tourist guide applications provide tourists with many different and rich information during their trips and facilitate tourists' trips.</p> Remziye EKİCİ ÇİLKİN Derya TOKSÖZ Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 12 1 445 455 10.21325/jotags.2024.1388 Determinants of the Usage of ChatGPT in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: A Model Proposal from the Technology Acceptance Perspective https://jotags.net/index.php/jotags/article/view/2077 <p>ChatGPT is a generative artificial intelligence technology. It is a technology that is becoming more widely used. This research aimed to identify the determinants of the usage of ChatGPT in the tourism and hospitality industry. For this purpose, a systematic literature review was conducted, and six determinants of ChatGPT usage were identified. These are experience quality, satisfaction, interaction, ethics, reliability, and design features. These determined variables affect the behavioral intention regarding the usage of ChatGPT. Within the scope of the findings, a model for using ChatGPT is proposed from the perspective of the Technology Acceptance Model. Determinants of the use of ChatGPT in the tourism and hospitality industry have been identified. Relevant articles were subjected to thematic analysis and themes were determined. These; quality of experience, satisfaction, interaction, ethics, reliability and design features. In this research, determinants regarding the use of ChatGPT in the tourism and accommodation sector were identified and recommendations were made.</p> Alptekin SÖKMEN Hasan Evrim ARICI Gürkan ÇALIŞKAN Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 12 1 626 644 10.21325/jotags.2024.1398 Türkiye’nin Binicilik Turizmi Potansiyelinin İncelenmesi (The Examination of Türkiye's Equestrian Tourism Potential) https://jotags.net/index.php/jotags/article/view/2078 <p>Dünya genelinde turizmin gelişmesine paralel olarak talep gören turizm aktivitelerinden birisi de biniciliktir. Bu çalışmanın temel amacı, Türkiye’nin sahip olduğu binicilik turizmi potansiyelinin bütüncül bir yaklaşımla ele alınarak incelenmesidir. Özellikle Türkçe turizm literatüründe binicilik turizminin bağımsız ve bütüncül olarak incelendiği özgün çalışmalar konusunda bir boşluk olduğu görülmüştür. Bu çalışmanın bu boşluğu dolduracağı ve binicilik turizmi ile ilgili yapılacak farklı araştırmalara kaynak niteliği taşıyacağı düşünülmektedir. Betimsel bir araştırma olan bu çalışmada, belge taraması yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Araştırma kapsamında Türkçe ve yabancı alan yazın, binicilik ve turizm olguları ekseninde tarama modeli uygulanarak incelenmiştir. Çalışma sonucunda, Türkiye’nin dünyada binicilik turizminden yüksek gelir elde eden birçok ülkeye kıyasla önemli avantajlara sahip olduğu ancak bu potansiyelin henüz yeterince kullanılmadığı ortaya çıkmıştır. Bunun yanı sıra Türkiye’de binicilik turizminin geliştirilmesi ile, coğrafi ve iklimsel koşullar fark etmeksizin Türkiye’nin her bölgesinde on iki ay turizm hareketliliğinin sağlanabileceği, bu sayede ekonomik sorunların ve göç sorununun çözümüne katkı sağlanarak kırsal kalkınmanın doğayla uyumlu sürdürülebilir şekilde artırılabileceği sonuçlarına ulaşılmıştır.</p> Sedat DEĞİŞGEL Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 12 1 645 662 10.21325/jotags.2024.1399 Uzay Turizmine Holistik Bir Bakış: Bibliyometrik Bir Analiz (A Holistic Perspective on Space Tourism: A Bibliometric Analysis) https://jotags.net/index.php/jotags/article/view/2080 <p>The aim of this study is to present a holistic perspective to the literature by revealing the current status, development and trend of the studies in the field of social sciences related to space tourism, which is one of the most striking and interesting branches of the tourism industry in recent years, has made great developments, has a high added value and has a very high potential for the future, through bibliometric analysis method. In this context, English articles published on space tourism in the Web of Science Core Collection database between 2001 and 2023 were analyzed. Data were obtained using the keyword "space tourism" and VOSviewer bibliometric mapping program was used for analysis and basic analysis techniques such as co-authorship, citation network, bibliographic matching, and concept association were applied. According to the findings, it was determined that the first study on space tourism in the field of social sciences was published in 2001, the most contributing country was the UK, the most productive institution was the University of Canterbury, and the pioneering authors in the field were Han, Goehlich and Crouch. It was determined that the concepts representing the studies on space tourism were "space tourism", "space travel" and "tourism".</p> Gülçin KARATAŞ BARAN Nedim YÜZBAŞIOĞLU Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 12 1 686 702 10.21325/jotags.2024.1401 Turizmde Dijitalleşmenin Olumlu-Olumsuz Etkileri Üzerine Bir Değerlendirme (An Evaluation on the Positive and Negative Effects of Digitalization in Tourism) https://jotags.net/index.php/jotags/article/view/2084 <p>This study deals with the reflections of the digital world on the tourism sector. The facilities provided by the developing industrial applications in transportation, accommodation, agency and guidance activities, which are among the basic components of tourism, are written, and then some negative situations brought by digitalization in the mentioned sectors, which are the main components of tourism, are included. Although digitalization in tourism leads to customer satisfaction, comfort and operational convenience in transportation and accommodation sectors in general, maintenance-repair etc. It has been evaluated that it can cause additional costs, problems in the employment of qualified technical personnel and problems such as cyber security. Although it is not foreseen that digitalization will cause serious problems for travel agencies, it has been emphasized that there may be some systemic problems. In terms of professional tourist guides, it has been evaluated that digitalization can minimize communication between tourist individuals and guides, and it has been emphasized that digital guidance devices will not provide a real professional guide experience. As a result, it is understood that although digitalization has positive contributions to the tourism sector, its negative effects should not be ignored.</p> Gamze KAHRAMAN Ali Caner İNCESU Fulden Nuray KÜÇÜKERGİN Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 12 1 735 754 10.21325/jotags.2024.1404 Geleneksel Kıbrıs Mutfağından Bir Örnek: Golifa (Koliva) (An Example of Traditional Cypriot Cuisine: Golifa (Koliva)) https://jotags.net/index.php/jotags/article/view/2044 <p>Cypriot cuisine has reached its cultural richness from the civilizations that have reigned on the island from the past to the present and under the influence of the Mediterranean basin in which it is located. Golifa, which is made by both the Northern and Southern societies of the island of Cyprus, is an important food that has a symbolic meaning in both societies. In this study, Galoifa, which has taken place in Cypriot culinary culture as a special day gastronomy, and anise, sesame and garacocco (nigella) spices are transferred from its flavor components. In face-to-face meetings with 20 cultural transmitters who have knowledge and experience of island culinary culture, it was tried to reveal what golifa means for the Cypriot community and how far its history dates back.&nbsp; By recording the implementation stages of Golifa, it is aimed to contribute both to the expansion of the Cypriot gastronomy literature and to prevent it from being forgotten in the future and to transfer it to new generations. In the study, it can be said that Golifa dates back centuries. It has maintained its place in traditional Cypriot cuisine until today. Golifa, which has an important place in the traditional Cypriot culinary culture as a symbol of abundance and fertility, is a common cultural heritage of a bi-communal social structure containing beliefs and rituals performed to meet the new year as a special day gastronomy. Golifa is very rich in nutrients and fiber. We can recommend it to teenagers, adults and the elderly at the age of puberty</p> Aysun YILMABAŞAR Fulya SARPER Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 12 1 1 28 10.21325/jotags.2024.1366 Exploring the Nexus of Tourism and Technology Acceptance: A Bibliometric Analysis https://jotags.net/index.php/jotags/article/view/2045 <p>This article offers a comprehensive bibliometric analysis examining the complex relationship between technological acceptance and tourism. The study examines 313 documents from 183 different sources between 1995 and 2023, with a primary focus on articles (n = 213). Key findings show that this research area first appeared in 1995 and that 856 authors contributed 966 times to its changing environment. Global collaborations are led by China, the USA, and, surprisingly, Malaysia; this highlights the international character of modern research. The selection of essential journals is guided by Bradford's Law, which emphasizes "Sustainability" as a key resource. Lodka's Law highlights the contributions of a small number of extremely productive writers while revealing complex authorship interactions. Information technology and user acceptance are two examples of thematic focal points that are found through word cloud analysis. Global research clusters are identified by Collaboration Network analysis across nations, organizations, and authors. These analyses provide important information for future research orientations, industry, and academia. This research adds to the growing body of knowledge regarding how technology affects travel by offering guidance to academics, industry professionals, and decision-makers on how to navigate this complex intersection.</p> M. Bahadır KALIPÇI Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 12 1 29 41 10.21325/jotags.2024.1367 Krema Çeşitlerinin Tüketici Tercihleri Üzerindeki Etkisi: Bir Duyusal Değerlendirme Çalışması (The Impact of Cream Varieties on Consumer Preferences: A Sensory Evaluation Study) https://jotags.net/index.php/jotags/article/view/2047 <p>This research adopts a sensory analysis methodology to evaluate the effects of three different types of cream used in the pastry sector on the perceived taste and overall acceptability by consumers. A panel of 20 individuals was employed to assess the taste, aroma, texture, and general acceptability of fresh pastries. Three visually similar but content-wise distinct pastry samples were presented to the panelists, and these samples were meticulously evaluated. The research was conducted based on the fundamental question posed to the panelists: "<em>What are your opinions on the taste, texture, aroma, and overall acceptability of these three different types of cream used in the pastry sector in recent years?</em>" The evaluations of the panelists were collected using a 9-point hedonic scale rating test developed by Peryam and Pilgrim (1957). The data were tested using Friedman's S and Wilcoxon signed-rank test analyses. According to the results of the study, significant differences were identified in consumer preferences in terms of taste, texture, aroma, and overall acceptability. Pastries prepared with Velvet cream were found to be the most preferred among consumers. It was concluded that taste, aroma, and texture factors played a crucial role in determining consumer preferences for fresh pastries.</p> Cevat ERCİK Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 12 1 42 59 10.21325/jotags.2024.1368 Turistlerin Plansız Satın Alma Davranışında Sosyal Medyanın Etkisi (The Effect of Social Media On The Impulse Buying Behavior of Tourists) https://jotags.net/index.php/jotags/article/view/2048 <p>The development of information technologies has led to changes in the purchasing behavior of consumers. While some consumers make a planned purchase by deciding on the products they will buy in advance, some consumers are influenced by a product they see at that moment and make an unplanned purchase. The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of social media on impulse buying behavior of tourists. The effects of hedonic browsing, utilitarian browsing and flow experience, which are thought to have an impact, on impulsive buying were examined. In addition, the effect of hedonic and utilitarian browsing on flow experience was also examined. The research was conducted with the online survey method via social media channels. 422 social media users participating in the study were selected by convenience sampling method. As a result of the research, it has been revealed that utilitarian and hedonic browsing have an effect on the flow experience in the impulse buying of tourists from different generations. At the same time, the direct effect of utilitarian and hedonic browsing on consumers' impulsive buying behavior has been identified. However, it has been determined that the flow experience in social media does not have a direct effect on tourists' impulse buying behavior.</p> Demet ÖZCAN YILMAZSOY Reyhan ARSLAN AYAZLAR Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 12 1 60 82 10.21325/jotags.2024.1369 Gastronomide Şef İmajı: Göstergebilimsel Bir İnceleme (Chef Image in Gastronomy: A Semiotic Analysis) https://jotags.net/index.php/jotags/article/view/2049 <p>The study aims to fill the gap in the literature regarding the concept of chef image and to contribute to the existing literature by creating a different perspective with semiotic analysis. In this context, the movie "The Menu", which contains many different indicators related to the image of the chef, is examined with a qualitative research approach, making use of Barthes' semiotic theory, and a model is proposed in the light of the findings. According to the findings, the chef's level of recognition, innovation and creativity process, the image of the restaurant, the chef's knowledge, skills and success are effective variables in the formation of the chef image. The chef image has the potential to have an impact on different variables for the consumer and the business. In addition, the results of the study argue that although the studies conducted in the field of chef image are limited, they have a significant impact in practice. At the end of the study, theoretical and practical suggestions are presented.</p> Kerem ÇIRAK Ekin AKBULUT Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 12 1 83 110 10.21325/jotags.2024.1370 Bir Sanat Tekniği Olan “Trompe L'oeil’in’’, Gastronomi Alanında Uygulanabilirliği (The Applicability of Trompe L'oeil, an Art Technique, in The Field of Gastronomy) https://jotags.net/index.php/jotags/article/view/2050 <p>"Trompe l'oeil," a term of French origin, translates literally to "deceive the eye." This technique used in art aims to deceive the viewer by creating a special visual illusion. Often employed in painting and sculpture, artists skillfully utilize perspective, color, and shading to trick the viewer's eye into perceiving objects in the artwork as real. Trompe l'oeil, by aiming to create a visual deception, has the potential to add depth and realism to artworks. In gastronomy, this technique is also used in the presentation of meals and the aesthetically pleasing display of food. Chefs may employ the trompe l'oeil technique to enhance the visual appeal of dishes alongside their taste. In fields such as pastry making, chefs can apply trompe l'oeil by using chocolate, fruit, or other ingredients to depict or present food in a different manner. This contributes to highlighting creativity and aesthetics in gastronomy. The purpose of this research is to compile, through a literature review, what trompe l’oeil technique entails and examples of its application in the field of gastronomy. The increasing use of this technique in food and beverage establishments, offering individuals a unique experience during consumption, and its relevance as a contemporary research topic in the artistic concept of gastronomy underscore its significance. In this context, it is anticipated that the study will contribute to the existing literature in the field.</p> Hilal ÖZ Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 12 1 111 121 10.21325/jotags.2024.1371 Unutulmaz Çay Turizmi Deneyimi (Memorable Tea Tourism Experience) https://jotags.net/index.php/jotags/article/view/2051 <p>Tourists gain experiences because of their travels. The extent to which the experience of happiness, satisfaction, and contentment increases for tourists determines how memorable they consider their experience to be. Memorable experiences for tourists shed light on their future travel plans. The memorable tourism experience varies from person to person and the factors that make the experience memorable in various tourism types are similarly diverse. This study aims to identify the factors that make the experience of tourists participating in tea tourism memorable. A qualitative research approach with a phenomenological design was chosen to obtain detailed information about the experiences of tourists, and data were obtained using semi-structured interview technique. Purposeful sampling method and snowball sampling method were used to identify tourists participating in tea tourism in the Rize destination. Due to the limited number of people participating in tea tourism and the recurrence of the data obtained, interviews were conducted with ten people. The data obtained at the end of the interviews were analyzed using the MAXQDA 22 program. The data obtained were analyzed using descriptive analysis from the deductive data analysis technique. As a result of the analyzes, among the factors that make tea tourism unforgettable, acquiring knowledge, experiencing hedonic pleasure, local culture, nature, and actively participating in activities are included. As a result of the study findings, various recommendations have been made to practitioners to make the experience of tea tourists memorable.</p> Kübra ÖZER Elif ACUNER Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 12 1 122 146 10.21325/jotags.2024.1372 Şeflerin Yerel Yiyeceğe İlişkin Davranışlarının İncelenmesi (An Analysis of Chefs' Behaviors Towards Local Food) https://jotags.net/index.php/jotags/article/view/2052 <p>Local food consumption has become a global and growing trend in recent times. The inclusion of local foods in the menus of restaurants and hotels provides a distinct advantage in tourism. Despite existing research, there is limited information about chefs' perspectives on local foods. This study aims to determine chefs' perceptions of local foods, their usage in menus, and purchasing intentions. A sequential explanatory design, combining quantitative and qualitative research methods, was employed. Findings indicate that workforce significantly influences chefs' use of local foods, while popularity does not have a statistically significant impact. Moreover, the intention to purchase local foods is not statistically affected by their inclusion in the menu.</p> Serkan GÜN Gül Damla KILIÇ Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 12 1 147 167 10.21325/jotags.2024.1373 Turizmde Sürdürülebilirliğin Bibliyometrik Analiz Yöntemi ile İncelenmesi (Investigation of Sustainability in Tourism Using Bibliometric Analysis) https://jotags.net/index.php/jotags/article/view/2053 <p>Tourism is one of the world's most diverse and dynamic industries. As one of the prominent paradigms in the field of tourism, sustainable tourism continues to be debated and criticized in the literature. The aim of this article is to contribute to the field by examining the trends and patterns in sustainable tourism over the last two decades through bibliometric analysis. The WoS database was accessed and searched using the keywords "*sustain* *tourism*". The data obtained were first analyzed in terms of descriptive characteristics and then analyzed by authors, institutions, and countries in terms of citation counts, co-citation, co-authorship, co-existence, and bibliographic matching analysis types using the VOSviewer program. The results show that research on sustainable tourism has shown a remarkable growth in recent years, with almost half of the research conducted in the last five years. Furthermore, the most common types of articles are empirical studies and critical reviews. The results of the analysis are intended to provide guidance for researchers.</p> Seyda Fatih HARMANDAROĞLU Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 12 1 168 186 10.21325/jotags.2024.1374 Gastronomi Başlığı Altında Yayımlanmış Doktora Tezlerinin Bibliyometrik Analizi (The Bibliometric Analysis of Doctoral Theses Published Under the Title of Gastronomy) https://jotags.net/index.php/jotags/article/view/2054 <p>In this study, the aim is to analyze doctoral theses published under the title of gastronomy between the years 2014-2023 using bibliometric analysis techniques based on determined parameters. By searching for the keyword "Gastronomy" and thesis types "Doctorate" among the published theses in the Higher Education Council Thesis database, a total of 70 doctoral theses were found. However, it was observed that one of the theses had restricted access. As of November 10, 2023, 69 doctoral theses were accessible. The retrieved theses were examined based on the publication year, university of publication, relevant department, academic title of the advisor, institute of publication, the subject of the thesis, and the number of pages of the thesis, in addition to the data collection method and keywords used, as indicated in the bibliographic records of the Higher Education Council Thesis database.The data obtained from the examination were subjected to frequency and percentage analyses using the Microsoft Excel program. The analyses revealed that the highest number of doctoral theses published under the title of gastronomy were prepared at Gazi University (8), and the most commonly used research method was surveys (42). Furthermore, it was determined that the number of doctoral theses increased by 5.3 times between 2021 and 2023, and among the findings, it was noted that 40 doctoral theses were supervised by advisors holding the title of Professor Doctor.</p> Cansu İŞERİ Sibel ÖNÇEL Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 12 1 187 203 10.21325/jotags.2024.1375 Yoksul Yanlısı Turizm Bağlamında Yapılan Çalışmaların Bibliyometrik Analizi: Web of Science Örneği (Bibliometric Analysis of Studies in the Context of Pro-Poor Tourism: The Case of Web of Science) https://jotags.net/index.php/jotags/article/view/2055 <p>Poverty is one of the major problems since the existence of humanity. Individuals put a lot of effort into the fight against poverty. Pro-poor tourism is a way of approach in the tourism industry as a result of efforts to eliminate this situation. The aim of the study is to carry out a bibliometric analysis of published studies on pro-poor tourism. In this study, within the scope of the concept of pro-poor tourism, the researches from the past to the present were mapped and the direction of its development was investigated. In the context of quantitative data, it is important to present the existing literature on the concept of pro-poor tourism to researchers by making bibliometric analysis as a systematic short summary, to identify and fill existing gaps and to determine trends. The Web of Science database was used to collect information on works published within the scope of pro- poor tourism between 2003 and 2023. There are 219 works related to pro-poor tourism in the Web of Science database. When we look at the number and year of publication of these works, the most works are in 2017; The names of the people who received the most citations are; Ko Koens, Maria Jose Zapata and David Harrison; The type of publication is predominantly in the type of journal article; It is known that tourism is a priority in terms of research areas.</p> Yusuf ÇUHADAR Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 12 1 204 226 10.21325/jotags.2024.1376 İş Stresi ve Tükenmişlik Sendromunun Çalışan Performansı Üzerine Etkileri (The Effect of Job Stress and Burnout Syndrome on Employee Performance) https://jotags.net/index.php/jotags/article/view/2056 <p>The purpose of this research was to reveal the effect ofjob stress and burnout syndrome on employeeperformance. The universe of the research consists ofhotel businesses with a tourism ministry bussinessescertificates. The sample group representing the universeconsists of four and five star hotel businesses operating inthe province of Sakarya.In this scope, the data obtainedfrom 263 employees were evaluated in the analysisprocess. The data were collected by survey technique tomeasure the purpose of the research. As a data collectiontool in the survey; demographic information from, jobstress scale, burnout scale and job performance scalewere used. Within the scope of the findings obtained fromthe research data, it was determined that job stress andburnout syndrome had a significant effect on employeeperformance.</p> Büşra YALÇIN Aydın YILMAZER Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 12 1 227 244 10.21325/jotags.2024.1377 Bolu İlinin Sağlık Turizmi Potansiyelinin SWOT Analizi Yöntemiyle Değerlendirilmesi ve Sağlık Turizminin Çeşitlendirilmesi (Evaluation of the Health Tourism Potential of Bolu Province with the SWOT Analysis Method and Diversification of Health Tourism) https://jotags.net/index.php/jotags/article/view/2057 <p>Health tourism is an important type of tourism that is gaining importance day by day. It continues to gain importance both in the world and in Turkey, especially due to its high economic return. Bolu province is a growing destination in health tourism with its thermal resources and plateaus with clean air. In this regard, the aim of this study is to evaluate the health tourism potential of Bolu province with the SWOT analysis method and to determine the types of health tourism that can be done in Bolu province. In this study, qualitative research method and phenomenology, a design belonging to this research method, were used. Within the scope of the research, it is planned to interview officials in public institutions, public and private hospital managers, academics and non-governmental organization officials and semi-structured interviews were conducted with a total of 10 people. As a result of the interviews, the strengths of Bolu province are its ease of transportation, climate suitability, minimum level of city traffic and noise pollution; Factors such as lack of promotion, lack of qualified personnel, insufficient investments of the private health sector and lack of encouragement by administrative administrations were stated as its weaknesses.</p> Hakan TUNA Aleyna TUNA Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 12 1 245 265 10.21325/jotags.2024.1378 Türkiye'de Profesyonel Turist Rehberliği Mesleğinde Uzmanlaşma: Bölgelerin Mevcut Durumu ve Geleceğe Dönük Öneriler (Specialization in Professional Tourist Guiding Profession in Turkey: Current Situation of The Regions and Future Recommendations) https://jotags.net/index.php/jotags/article/view/2058 <p>This study aims to evaluate the current situation of specialization in the professional tourist guiding profession in Turkey and to make suggestions for the future by identifying potential areas of specialization on a regional basis. In the literature, it is seen that the studies on specialization in tourist guidance are studies on the explanation of the types of specialization and the specialization training organized by professional organizations. However, this study reveals the current situation, evaluates potential areas of expertise, draws attention to shortcomings, and makes suggestions for the future. In this respect, this conceptual study may be useful for academic circles by filling the gaps in the literature. On the other hand, it is seen as an important study that guides both those who are professionally engaged in the tourist guiding profession in the sector and the candidates who are trained to do the tourist guiding profession, to differentiate themselves from their colleagues in an intensely competitive environment. In this context, based on the literature review, firstly, the subject of specialization in tourist guidance was examined and the current situation was evaluated based on the expertise training held in Turkey. Then, according to the tourism potentials of the regions in Turkey, tourist guidance specialization areas were presented, and the striking deficiencies were highlighted. In the conclusion part, a general evaluation was made, the outputs for the academic circles and sector practitioners were discussed, and suggestions for future studies were made.</p> Kurtuluş KARAMUSTAFA Bilgehan KILIÇHAN Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 12 1 266 289 10.21325/jotags.2024.1379 Akış Deneyimi ve Varoluşsal Otantiklik Deneyimi İnanç Turizminde Deneyimlenebilir mi? Meryem Ana Evi’nde Hac İbadetine Katılanlara Yönelik Bir Araştırma https://jotags.net/index.php/jotags/article/view/2059 <p>The aim of this research is to understand the flow experience and existential authenticity experiences of Christians who went to the House of Virgin Mary and became pilgrims. To increase validity in the study, qualitative research methods such as interview, observation and document analysis were used. For this purpose, detailed telephone interviews were conducted with 5 Christian pilgrims. Interview results in the current study, the perception of time loses its importance during the ritual for the majority of the participants (P1, P3, P4, P5) shows that they experience flow and existential authenticity together. majority of the participants (P1, P3, P5) focused intensely on the ritual, became enraptured, isolated themselves from everything and got into the flow proves that they experienced flow and existential authenticity together. Based on the observation results in the current study, most visitors are overwhelmed with emotions and accompany prayers shows that they experience these two experiences together. Based on the results of the document analysis in the current research, it is concluded that the experience of flow and existential authenticity have very similar characteristics and are intertwined. In the current research, as a result of interviews, observations and document analysis, it has been revealed that flow and existential authenticity can be experienced in religious tourism.</p> Selma MEYDAN UYGUR Havva ÇIVGIN Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 12 1 290 313 10.21325/jotags.2024.1380 Aşçıların İş Yükünün İşten Ayrılma Niyetine Etkisi: İstanbul’daki Alakart Restoran İşletmelerinde Bir Araştırma (The Impact of the Workload of Chefs on Their Intention to Leave the Job: A Research on Ala Carte Restaurants in Istanbul) https://jotags.net/index.php/jotags/article/view/2060 <p>The employees in the food and beverage enterprises have a significant impact for the enterprises to achieve their goals. The aim of this research is to determine the effect of the workload of kitchen staff working in a la carte restaurants in Istanbul on the intention to leave. The kitchen staff working in à la carte restaurants in Istanbul constitutes the population of the research. A survey data collection tool was used to collect the targeted data in the research, 401 people were reached and the data obtained from the participants were analyzed through a statistical program. Factor analysis was applied to test the construct validity of each scale that was used in the research. ANOVA analysis was conducted to test whether there is a difference between different groups in the research. In addition, regression analysis was applied to explain the direction and nature of the effect between the research variables. As a result of the ANOVA tests, some significant differences were detected between different groups. In addition, it was determined in the study that workload had a positive and statistically significant effect on the intention to leave the job.</p> Özkan DEMİR Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 12 1 314 331 10.21325/jotags.2024.1381 Gastro-Kültürel Turlara Katılan Yerli Ziyaretçilerin Otantiklik Algısı ve Tur Deneyim Kalitesi: Turist Rehberlerinin Yorumlayıcı Rolünün Etkisi (Perception of Authenticıity and Tour Experience Quality of Domestic Visitors Participating in Gastro-Cultural https://jotags.net/index.php/jotags/article/view/2061 <p>This research aims to examine the impact of the interpretative role of tourist guides on the perception of authenticity and tour experience quality of domestic visitors participating in gastro-cultural tours. The lack of studies in the tourism literature that measure the interpretative role of tourist guides on the authenticity perception and experience quality of domestic visitors participating in gastro-cultural tours makes the research valuable. A total of 626 domestic visitors who arrived in the Mardin province by tour constitute the sample of the study. For the analysis of the dataset in the research, IBM SPSS 26 and AMOS 22 statistical analysis programs were used together. Through the structural equation analysis employed in the research, it was found that the interpretative role of tourist guides had a positive and high impact on visitors’ perception of authenticity and a positive and moderate impact on visitors’ tour experience quality. Additionally, it is another finding of the study that the perceived authenticity of domestic visitors participating in gastro-cultural tours had a positive and good level of impact on the quality of their experience with the Mardin province.</p> Gizem ÇORMAN Gülay ÖZDEMİR YILMAZ Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 12 1 332 352 10.21325/jotags.2024.1382 Potansiyel Tüketicilerin 3D Baskılı Yiyeceklere Yönelik Algılarının Davranışsal Niyete Etkisi: Çeşitlilik Arayışının Düzenleyici Rolü (The Effect of Potential Consumers’ Perceptions of 3D Printed Foods on Behavioral Intention: The Moderating Role of Varie https://jotags.net/index.php/jotags/article/view/2062 <p>Three-dimensional food printing allows foods to be personalized by giving each food unique attribute. As the demand for personalized foods has increased, three-dimensional printed foods have become widespread. In this context, it can be stated that it has become important to investigate consumers’ evaluations of three-dimensional printed foods. Therefore, the aim of this study is to reveal the impact of potential consumers’ perceptions of three-dimensional printed foods on behavioral intention. Another aim is to investigate the moderating effect of variety seeking. Based on these, 543 valid data were obtained through a survey and analyzed using structural equation modeling with the SmartPLS program (PLS-SEM). According to the results, three-dimensional printed foods attributes have effect on behavioral intentions. On the other hand, moderating role of variety seeking cannot be determined. Therefore, it can be suggested that since three-dimensional printed foods, which can be considered a new application, are not known enough and importance should be given to promoting these foods by highlighting their attributes.</p> Evrim YILDIZ Lütfi BUYRUK Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 12 1 353 375 10.21325/jotags.2024.1383 Does Tourism Reduce Income Inequality? Empirical Evidence for Turkiye https://jotags.net/index.php/jotags/article/view/2063 <p>Income inequality poses a significant risk to societal harmony. While tourism presents numerous economic prospects, the ongoing discussion regarding its impact on income inequality persists. Assessing the potential of leveraging the growth in the tourism industry to address income disparities will have significant ramifications for Turkiye, a prominent player in the tourism sector. Hence, this study examines the influence of tourism on the disparity of wealth in Turkiye spanning the years 1995 to 2020. The RALS-EG method is used to examine this impact. According to the information obtained, while an increase in the GDP variable increases income inequality, an increase in the FDI variable leads to a decrease in income inequality. The tourism variable, which is the main subject of the study, has a negative sign and a 1 unit increase in tourism causes a 0.03% decrease in income inequality.</p> Esra SOYU YILDIRIM Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 12 1 376 389 10.21325/jotags.2024.1384 Otel İşletmelerinde Karanlık Kişilik Özelliklerinin Nepotizme Etkisi: Erzurum Örneği (The Effect of Dark Personality Traits on Nepotism in Hotel Businesses: Erzurum Case) https://jotags.net/index.php/jotags/article/view/2064 <p>In organisations where nepotism exists, it’s seen that the principles of meritocracy and justice are ignored, resources are transferred to a limited environment and organisational efficiency decreases. Some, managers with some dark personality traits may contribute to the increase in nepotic attitudes.&nbsp; Therefore, this study aims to exhibit how managers' dark personality traits affect nepotism in organisations. Within the scope of the research, in order to measure the relationship between managers' dark personality traits and nepotism by using survey techniques, data were obtained from 181 employees working in star- rated hotels operating in Palandoken Ski Centre in Erzurum province. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed on the data and dark personality traits were sub-divided into machiavellianism and narcissism, nepotism was sub-divided into favouritism in promotion and hiring processes. It was found that machiavellianism significantly and positively influenced favoritism in both promotion and hiring processes. In addition, narcissism was also shown to significantly and positively influence favoritism in both promotion and hiring processes.</p> Fatih BALTACI Fatih YILDIRIM Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 12 1 390 408 10.21325/jotags.2024.1385 Türkiye'de Airbnb Kullanıcılarının Tesis Değerlendirmelerini Etkileyen Faktörler (Factors Influencing Airbnb Facility Ratings in Türkiye) https://jotags.net/index.php/jotags/article/view/2065 <p>Sharing platforms have emerged as more than just an alternative proposed for sustainable consumption, reflecting consumers' need for diverse and integrated solutions. This article examines the features that influence consumers' evaluation of the Airbnb platform. The features offered by the Airbnb facility are treated as independent variables. Independent variables include the location of the facility, the responsiveness of the host to inquiries, the view from the Airbnb facility, the availability of parking, the existence of heating and cooling facilities, outdoor amenities provided by the facility, additional services offered, the option for extended stays, the inclusion or exclusion of breakfast, price, and the availability of family-friendly features. The dependent variable is the overall evaluation score given to the facility. The research revealed the factors influencing consumers' ratings above the average at Airbnb facilities.</p> Duygu AYDIN ÜNAL Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 12 1 409 427 10.21325/jotags.2024.1386 Uzak Doğu Restoranlarında Çalışan Bireylerin Gıda Neofobi Düzeylerinin Belirlenmesi: İstanbul ve Bodrum Örneği (Determination of Food Neophobia Levels of Individuals Working in Far Eastern Restaurants: Istanbul and Bodrum Example) https://jotags.net/index.php/jotags/article/view/2066 <p>Change and innovation are phenomena that exist in every area of our lives and continue indefinitely. These two phenomena affect every sector as well as the food and beverage sector to a great extent.Although the food and beverage sector is open to innovation, not all consumers are open to innovation. The state of not being open to new foods is called fear of innovation in food (food neophobia). Within the scope of this study, it is aimed to determine the food neophobia levels of Turkish individuals working in Far Eastern restaurants according to variables.&nbsp; Within this scope, 168 individuals working in Far Eastern restaurants in Istanbul and Bodrum have been reached.&nbsp; Quantitative research methods were used in the research and the questionnaire form was used as a data collection tool. A total of 10 descriptive questions and 11 statements that are directly or inversely proportional to food neophobia were asked&nbsp; to the participants. Skewness-kurtosis, frequency, t-test and variance analysis were applied to the obtained data. According to descriptive statistics, a significant difference was found according to the age variable of individuals (p&lt;0.05). There was no significant difference in the scope of food neophobia according to other variables.</p> Cemile BÜYÜKYILDIRIM Eda GÜNEŞ Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 12 1 428 444 10.21325/jotags.2024.1387 17. Yüzyıl İstanbul Mutfağına 1640 Tarihli Narh Defterinden Bir Bakış (A Look at the 17th Century Istanbul Cuisine from the Narh Book Dated 1640) https://jotags.net/index.php/jotags/article/view/2068 <p>In this study, which was prepared to determine the foods used in the 17th century Istanbul cuisine, the narh book dated 1640 was analyzed by using the document examination. This work, which has survived to the present day in 1983 by Mübahat S. Kütükoğlu with the title of “Osmanlılarda Narh Müessesesi ve 1640 Tarihli Narh Defteri”, was analyzed by using descriptive analysis. The entire 247-page text section of the work has been translated and the sections of <em>“Es’âr-ı Me’kûlât, Es’âr-ı Attârân, Es’âr-ı Eşribe ve Me’âcin”</em>, which are related to food, have been classified. As a result, it was determined that there were a total of 275 foods in the narh book and these foods were collected in 13 classes. For further studies; It is recommended to research the cuisines of the century, which were especially expressed as incomplete in the Ottoman Empire, to carry out archive-based studies, to make product-oriented examinations, to examine foreign travelogues, and to synthesize narh notebooks.</p> Seher ÇELİK YEŞİL Salih Y ILDIZ Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 12 1 456 476 10.21325/jotags.2024.1389 Tanınırlığı Arttırmada Yerel Mutfak Kültürü Çıktılarının Önemi; Kayseri Mutfak Kültürü Örneği (The Importance of Local Culinary Culture Outputs in Increasing Recognition; The Case of Kayseri Culinary Culture) https://jotags.net/index.php/jotags/article/view/2069 <p>This research was conducted to record the culinary culture outputs of Kayseri province and to examine the contribution of this culinary culture to the promotion of the region. Insufficient number of studies within the scope of Kayseri culinary culture inventory is an important motivation for planning this research. The study, which was conducted with a qualitative research design, was conducted between August 30, 2023 and March 1, 2024 in the city center of Kayseri. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 21 women aged 45 and over who were born and raised in Kayseri and lived in close contact with the culinary culture. The research was conducted using purposive sampling method. The data obtained from the interviews were interpreted in the findings section by performing descriptive analysis. In this research, bakery products, meat and meat dishes and legume dishes in the regional cuisine were inventoried. The research revealed that their culinary culture is sufficient to promote Kayseri, but despite the efforts made for geographically marked products and the efforts made for regional tourism, it is still insufficient in terms of recognition. It has been determined that the people of the region have expectations from local administrations, relevant university authorities and regional chefs to produce more entrepreneurial solutions for the promotion of culinary cultures.</p> Sibel AYYILDIZ Nisa YÜKSEL YÜKSEL Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 12 1 477 493 10.21325/jotags.2024.1390 Sivas Yerel Halkının Turizmin Gelişimine Yönelik Niyetsel ve Davranışsal Desteklerinin Belirlenmesinde Yer Aidiyetinin ve Turizm Etkilerinin Rolü https://jotags.net/index.php/jotags/article/view/2070 <p>Tourism can promote socioeconomic development, but can also harm culture and natural resources of the residents. Therefore, it is important to measure impacts of tourism. Studies on community-based tourism development are generally conducted in well-developed destinations. However, this study was conducted in Sivas, a destination that is not sufficiently developed from tourism perspective, in order to fill this gap in the literature. The main purpose of this study is to determine the support of the residents in Sivas towards tourism development by using factors such as place attachment and the impacts of tourism, and to fill this gap in the literature. Within the scope of study, surveys were conducted with 450 people in Sivas and data were evaluated with confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation model. According to results, while relationship was detected between place identity and intention to support, no relationship was found between place attachment and intentional support. At the end of study, limitations and recommendations are presented.</p> Furkan Atasoy KARACABEY Emrullah ERUL Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 12 1 494 515 10.21325/jotags.2024.1391 Ulusal Yazında Destinasyon İmajı Çalışmaları: Sistematik Literatür Taraması (Destination Image Studies in National Literature: A Systematic Literature Review) https://jotags.net/index.php/jotags/article/view/2071 <p>The concept of destination image has been very influential in destination development and marketing since the 1970s. Destination image plays a vital role in understanding tourists' behavioral intentions and decision-making processes. Tourists make decisions based on the perception of destination image rather than reality. For this reason, destination image studies in the field of tourism have become a common research topic in national literature as well as in international literature. From this point of view, this study, it is aimed to summarize the existing information about the articles published in Turkish, which includes the concept of "destination image" in the title or keywords, and to examine how these articles are handled. Fort his aims, the systematic literature review method examined 106 articles related to destination image reached in TRDizin, DergiPark and Google Scholar databases. As a result of the review, it was determined that articles were published for the first time in 2005. Journal of Tourism and Gastronomy Research was the journal with the most publications on destination image and articles were published in 66 different journals. It has been determined that the most used research method is the quantitative method, and the data collection technique is the questionnaire. In addition, it has been determined that Istanbul is the most frequently researched destination and the keywords used are destination image, destination, intention to revisit, satisfaction, tourism, image, behavioral intention, destination marketing, service quality, destination belonging, destination personality, and destination loyalty. Finally, some suggestions have been developed in light of the findings obtained in the researc</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Duran KURU Leyla LEBLEBİCİ KOÇER Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 12 1 516 537 10.21325/jotags.2024.1392 Döviz Kurları, Turizm Giderleri ve Yurtdışına Giden Vatandaş Sayıları Arasındaki İlişkiler: Granger Nedensellik Testi (Relationships Between Exchange Rates, Tourism Expenditures, And The Number of Citizens Traveling Abroad: Granger Causality Test) https://jotags.net/index.php/jotags/article/view/2072 <p>Tourism expenditure refers to the expenses incurred by Turkish Republic citizens residing within the country but traveling abroad for tourism purposes during their vacation. With a continuously increasing trend over the years, tourism expenditure is as crucial as the concept of tourism revenue. Calculating net tourism revenue involves subtracting tourism expenditure from the tourism revenue generated during a specific period. Academic studies generally focus on tourism revenue, but investigating tourism expenditure is equally important. To this end, this study addresses the topic of tourism expenditure and explores the causality relationship between exchange rates and tourism expenditure. In pursuit of this objective, the stationarity of the data is tested using the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) unit root test. Subsequently, a Vector Autoregressive (VAR) model is constructed, and Granger causality analysis is conducted. The results of the study indicate that there is no Granger causality relationship between tourism expenditures and exchange rates (EURO and USD), as well as between exchange rates and tourism expenditures. In other words, the changes in exchange rates are not the cause of the expenditures made by citizens traveling abroad. Similarly, the research results also demonstrate that there is no causality from tourism expenditures to exchange rates. However, while no mutual causality relationship is found between USD and the total number of citizens departing the country, a mutual causality relationship is identified between the Euro currency and the number of citizens traveling abroad.</p> Elif BEZİRGAN Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 12 1 538 551 10.21325/jotags.2024.1393 The Nutritional Content of Traditional Corn Bread and its Carotenoid Values https://jotags.net/index.php/jotags/article/view/2073 <p>Commonly found in nature are the pigments in many food groups. It has a significant function in the human body, such as strengthening immune system and specifically due to its provitamin A and antioxidant effects. With carotenoids’ chemical functions, they help to prevent a number of health problems before they occur in the body and to improve diseases existing. The aim of the study is to determine the carotenoid and nutritional elements of corn bread that was produced with flour obtained from local corn in Turkey. Experimental research method was used in the research and these samples were subjected to chemical analysis. Within the scope of the study, lutein, beta carotene, lycopene, energy, moisture, ash, protein, carbohydrate, dietary fibre, and fat analyses were made for three samples: corn flour, bread dough mix and baked corn bread. As a result of the analysis, it was determined that the prepared corn bread is rich in lutein, protein, dietary fibre and natural oil and it is valuable in terms of the energy that it provides, but after the heat treatment, some of the nutrients are decreased.</p> Batuhan ÖZTÜRK Semra AKAR ŞAHİNGÖZ Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 12 1 552 563 10.21325/jotags.2024.1394 Gastronomi Turizminde Beslenme Engelleri Kapsamında Glütensiz Ürün Geliştirme: Coğrafi İşaretli Gaziantep Şekerli Böreği https://jotags.net/index.php/jotags/article/view/2074 <p>The relationship between gluten, which is found in some grains, especially wheat, and various diseases has been one of the frequently evaluated topics in recent years. This situation has increased the demand for gluten-free food production and alternative products to wheat flour. While the gluten-free product market has been growing rapidly in recent years, wheat-based local products have a limited place in this market. It is thought that producing gluten-free alternatives of local products will contribute to gastronomy tourism. In this study, it was aimed to produce gluten-free, geographically marked, registered sugar pastry (şekerli börek), which is frequently consumed in Gaziantep cuisine. In this context, corn flour, buckwheat flour, carob flour and rice flour were used, and a control sample was also prepared with wheat flour. Sensory analyzes of the produced samples were carried out and it was observed whether there were any statistical differences in sensory properties. In order to determine the liking levels of gluten-free samples by consumers, sensory analyzes consisting of color, taste, smell, softness, chewiness and general appreciation parameters were applied to volunteer half educated panelists consisting of Muş Alparslan University Celiac and Gluten-Free Nutrition Community and Culinary program associate degree students.</p> Hüsnü KASAR Ayşe Büşra MADENCİ Yılmaz SEÇİM Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 12 1 564 584 10.21325/jotags.2024.1395 Filmlerdeki Gastronomik Unsurların Menü ve Mutfak Kültürlerini Yansıtma Biçimleri: Türk ve İtalyan Mutfağı Karşılaştırma Analizi (How Gastronomic Elements in Movies Reflect Menu and Culinary Cultures: A Comparative Analysis of Turkish and Italian Cuisine) https://jotags.net/index.php/jotags/article/view/2075 <p>Cultural factors, which demonstrate the distinguishing characteristics of cultures, form a direct or indirect interaction between various social systems. The period's communication technologies can play a crucial influence in this interaction. With the advent of contemporary means of communication, the interaction between cultures has grown increasingly intense. Gastronomy, one of the most fundamental cultural elements of all communities, has become one of the messages transmitted by technologically improved means, particularly mass media. This research aims to examine Turkish and Italian food cultures through the gastronomic elements in the movie "Perfetti Sconosciuti" ("Perfect Foreigner" in Turkish) and to compare the reflections of these cultures in the movie. According to the results of the research, although there are some similarities between Turkish and Italian food cultures, significant cultural differences have been identified. In Turkish food culture, various dishes are usually served together on the table, while in Italian food culture, the dishes are served sequentially. This difference reflected cultural diversity in table arrangements and presentation styles.</p> İlker ÖZTÜRK Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 12 1 585 603 10.21325/jotags.2024.1396 Yeşil Yıldızlı Otellerin Atık Gıda Uygulamaları; İstanbul Örneği (Waste Food Practices of Green Star Hotels; Istanbul Example) https://jotags.net/index.php/jotags/article/view/2076 <p>Gıdaların tarladan sofraya gelinceye kadar olan tüm süreçlerinde ekonomik ve çevresel kayıplar yaşanmaktadır. Kaynakların kullanımı sırasında en az kayıpla işlenmesi ve oluşan gıda atıklarının uygun şekillerde geri dönüştürülerek yeniden kullanılması da gastronomi alanında sürdürülebilirlikle ilişkilendirilebilmektedir. Araştırmanın amacı, İstanbul ilinde faaliyet gösteren yeşil yıldızlı otellerin atık gıda uygulamalarını incelemektir. Çalışma atık gıda uygulamalarının ortaya çıkarılması ve bu uygulamaların literatüre kazandırılarak yiyecek içecek işletmelerine fikir vermesi ve örnek olması açısından oldukça önemlidir. Araştırmacı tarafından işletmede çalışan yiyecek içecek müdürleri ve mutfak şefleriyle görüşmeler yapılmıştır. Bu nedenle çalışmada veri toplamak için görüşme (mülakat) tekniğinden faydalanılmıştır. Araştırmada elde edilen verilerin analizinde içerik analizi kullanılmıştır. Araştırmada verilerin analizleri sonucunda yeşil yıldızlı otellerin atık gıda uygulamaları ortaya çıkarılmıştır. Bu uygulamalar; “geri dönüşüm”, “alternatif uygulamalar”, “ürünü dönüştürme”, “tekrar kullanma” ve “imha etme” temaları altında belirtilmiştir. Ayrıca çalışmada Covid-19 sürecinin işletmelerin atık gıda uygulamalarını nasıl etkilediği ve işletmelerin sürdürülebilir atık gıda uygulamalarına ilişkin sonuçlarına da yer verilmiştir.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ayşen ERTAŞ SABANCI Neslihan ONUR Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 12 1 604 625 10.21325/jotags.2024.1397 Gastronomi Turizmi Kapsamında Antalya Lezzet Rotası (Antalya Taste Route in the Context of Gastronomy Tourism) https://jotags.net/index.php/jotags/article/view/2079 <p>The evaluation of local culinary heritage for gastronomy tourism has positive effects on the tourism product diversity of destinations and local development. In this context, it is very important to reveal the gastronomic products of Antalya, which is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Turkey, by going beyond the traditional sea, sand and sun. In this study, the products in the culinary culture of Antalya from past to present were examined by using the document analysis method, which is one of the qualitative analysis methods. In this context, a total of 12 sources, including 7 different web pages of official public institutions and organizations, 2 scientific articles, 2 theses and 1 book chapter, were examined. In the study, gastronomic products experienced in Antalya province were grouped according to the region they belong to. The study was prepared with the aim of mobilizing the existing gastronomy tourism potential of Antalya. It is also assumed that the study will contribute to the demand for the destination by domestic and foreign tourists by emphasizing the variety of gastronomic products that can be experienced.</p> Ahmet DUMAN Saniye Gül GÜNEŞ Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 12 1 663 685 10.21325/jotags.2024.1400 What if the Covid-19 Pandemic Never Happened? Estimation of the Tourist Arrivals for 2020 Via Levenberg-Marquardt Optimization and K-Star (K*) Machine Learning Algorithms https://jotags.net/index.php/jotags/article/view/2081 <p>Based on the probability theory, which is used to model uncertainty and randomness in real-world situations, the study aims to understand the impact of uncertain conditions, such as the Covid-19 pandemic, on the accuracy of the algorithms and the resulting losses to a country's tourism industry. The contribution of this paper to the international body of knowledge is twofold: firstly, it advances theoretical understanding of the use of probability theory in modelling real-world problems; and secondly, it offers a methodological approach for estimating tourist arrivals that accounts for the impact of extreme events. To achieve these aims, the Levenberg-Marquardt optimization was first applied to determine the optimal coefficients of the exponential function for estimating tourist arrivals from 1950 to 2020. Next, the K-Star machine learning algorithm was applied to the dataset with and without Covid-19 cases to estimate tourist arrivals.</p> Ferhat ŞEKER ŞEKER Alper BOZKURT Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 12 1 703 717 10.21325/jotags.2024.1402 Yemek Kültüründe Toplumsal Cinsiyet Normları (Gender Norms in Food Culture) https://jotags.net/index.php/jotags/article/view/2083 <p>This study was conducted to examine the relationship between consumption preferences and gender norms. In the study, participants' perceptions of food culture, traditional gender roles, media influence and consumption habits were examined depending on gender, marital status, age group, educational status and professional groups. The reflect widespread thoughts and perceptions in society, such as that traditional gender roles influence men's activity in relation to consumption choices, that women are anxious about cooking, and that the media perpetuates gender-based stereotypes. The findings show the impact of social norms associated with gender on food culture. Although the opinions that the participants generally accepted traditional gender roles and that women were associated with home cooking and that men had more authority in food-related matters in society came to the fore, it was revealed that demographic factors had an impact on the participants' perceptions. It is thought that these will help us understand how social norms and expectations affect individuals' attitudes about gender.</p> Fatma KOÇ İrfan YAZICIOĞLU Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 12 1 718 734 10.21325/jotags.2024.1403 Bedevi İmajından Gastronomi Merkezliğine: Körfez Ülkelerinde Gastrodiplomasi Uygulamaları (From Bedouin Image to Gastronomy-Centeredness: Gastrodiplomacy Practices in Gulf Countries) https://jotags.net/index.php/jotags/article/view/2085 <p>Over the years, eating has gone beyond being a physiological act and has become a cultural element.&nbsp; Foods also represent the culture of the nations in which they are found, and in this respect, the food cultures of countries turn into a means of intercultural communication and interaction. Today, it is important for countries to break down existing prejudices and correct misunderstandings in the eyes of the peoples of other countries. Countries that benefit from gastrodiplomacy try to create a positive country image on the peoples of other countries through their culinary cultures. In this study, it is aimed to examine the gastrodiplomacy practices of the Gulf countries with a special focus on Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In the research, which was prepared as a result of an in-depth literature study, the studies of the three countries in the field of gastrodiplomacy from past to present were included and the importance of the field of gastrodiplomacy was discussed based on these studies. In the examinations made, it has been determined that both the economy has strengthened in the Gulf Region, where oil and white robes called “thobe”, which have been identified with the “Middle Eastern profile” in orientalist depictions since the beginning of the XXI century, are the most common, and that the countries have brought to the forefront the search for attracting more tourists day by day. In the study, it was concluded that the Gulf countries, which are famous for their hospitality and crowded tables, have started to attach extraordinary importance to food and table culture in diplomatic contacts. In the literature review, the fact that the number of scientific studies on the Gulf region and the three countries investigated in the study is very few makes the study unique, and at the same time, it is envisaged that it will be a resource for those who are considering to work in this field.</p> Esra TÜYLÜOĞLU Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 12 1 755 776 10.21325/jotags.2023.1405