Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies <p>Journal of Tourism and Gastronomy Studies is an academic, refereed, online and open access journal publishing research, review, and theoretical articles in the field of tourism and gastronomy. The journal is published four times a year. The articles to be submitted should be in English or Turkish. Journal of Tourism and Gastronomy Studies welcomes articles from different institutions and countries. All manuscripts submitted to the Journal of Tourism and Gastronomy Studies is sent to the referees after the initial review of the editorial board with respect to formatting and content. Manuscripts must be submitted in accordance with the style of writing specified in the book of “The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th edition).</p> <p><span style="color: #000000; font-family: -apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, 'Segoe UI', Roboto, Oxygen-Sans, Ubuntu, Cantarell, 'Helvetica Neue', sans-serif; font-size: 17.4352px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;"> </span></p> Prof.Dr. İrfan YAZICIOĞLU en-US Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2147-8775 ChatGPT-4 for Hospitality: Implications <p>The aim of this study is to examine the several applications of ChatGPT-4 for the hospitality industry and to provide an agenda of research for investigating the potential implications of this model in the domain of hospitality. Questions, based on studies in the literature, were asked to ChatGPT-4 to see the opportunities it can offer to the hotel industry. This study, which discusses chatbots and artificial intelligence, suggests several potential applications of ChatGPT for the hospitality sector. The study’s suggestions are derived from previous research conducted on ChatGPT and a review of existing literature related to the topic. It is quite likely that ChatGPT-4 will have a significant influence on the hospitality industry. This chatbot will probably contribute to concierge services, booking hotels for tourists, giving feedback, room services, translation, training employees, operational efficiency, marketing hotels, and travel guidance.</p> Abdullah ÜLKÜ Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 1727 1743 10.21325/jotags.2023.1263 Biomass Potential of Organic Wastes in Hotels: A Case Study of Antalya <p>The innovations brought about by globalization have brought along the changes in consumption habits and resource waste with increasing population. Waste, which does not disappear in nature for years, harms our environment and threatens nature with various effects. Food waste, which is described as a global problem, is reaching greater proportions day by day. Today, food waste and losses in hotels have spread over a wide area, especially due to the open buffet option and the large menus that are created more than necessary. In this study, Antalya region, which is one of the most important tourism regions of Turkey, is discussed. The amount of biomass that can be obtained from the organic waste of a five-star hotel in this region has been calculated. Food waste, grass waste and waste oil were taken into consideration as organic waste. The electrical energy that can be produced by using hotel wastes was calculated at the end.</p> Ayşe Hilal ULUKARDEŞLER Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 1744 1752 10.21325/jotags.2023.1264 Tanzimat Dönemi Sonrası İstanbul’da Otel İşletmeciliği (Hotel Management in Istanbul After the Tanzimat Reform Era) <p>The shortening of travel times with the development of railways and sea routes after the Industrial Revolution, the increase in commercial agreements and activities, and the ever-curious mystical atmosphere and ethnic structure of the Ottoman Empire increased the desire to travel to the region and made it a curious destination. It is seen that hotel businesses were opened in the Beyoğlu district of Istanbul in the late 19th century to meet the increasing tourist demand. In this district, where mostly non-Muslims live, many hotel establishments have been opened over the years, especially in Pera and its surroundings. They have served as temporary hosts to important visitors. In the following years, hotels began to operate in different districts such as Üsküdar, Büyükada and Büyükdere. As the concept of city hotel management came to the fore and visitor expectations diversified and increased, Istanbul's historical hotels tried to change and had to keep up with innovation. This study touches upon the transformation of hotel management, which started in the Ottoman period, from the past to the present. In this context, it was aimed to obtain information about their current services and activities by evaluating the websites of the hotels that continue to serve in the Beyoğlu/Pera region of Istanbul. In the study, the websites of (4) hotels that were opened after the Tanzimat reform era and continue to serve today were examined. It was observed that the criteria in the website evaluation form were met at a sufficient level. Still, they were weak in the use of technological elements and modernization.</p> Ayşegül KUTLUK BOZKURT Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 1753 1766 10.21325/jotags.2023.1265 Glamping Turizmi: Ulusal Yazın Üzerine Bir İçerik Analizi (Glamping Tourism: A Content Analysis of the National Literature) <p>Değişen tüketici eğilimleri ile birlikte glamping turizmine olan talep her geçen gün artmaktadır. Glamping turizmi ile ilgili yapılan çalışma sayısı hala sınırlı sayıda olsa da artış göstermektedir. Ancak çalışmaların çoğunluğu kavramın neyi ifade ettiğini ve içeriğini öğrenmeye yönelik çalışmalardır. Yapılan çalışmaların detayını ortaya koyan ve bu çalışmaları genel olarak değerlendiren bir çalışmaya henüz rastlanmamıştır. Bu bağlamda bu çalışmanın amacı, Türkiye’de glamping turizmi alanında yapılmış olan makale, tez, bildiri ve kitap bölümlerini incelemektir. Çalışmanın glamping turizmi alanında çalışma yapacak araştırmacılara yol göstermesi beklenmektedir. Bu çalışma kapsamında 2023 yılı ağustos ayına kadar glamping turizmi ile ilgili yapılmış 35 çalışma incelenmiştir. Çalışmada nitel araştırma yöntemlerinden biri olan içerik analizi kullanılmıştır. Araştırma bulguları yıllar içinde glamping turizm ile ilgili çalışmaların arttığını ve en çok çalışmanın 2023 yılında yapıldığını göstermektedir. Ayrıca, çalışmada nitel araştırmaların çoğunlukta olduğu, daha çok glamping tesis yöneticileri ile görüşmeler gerçekleştirildiği, glamping, lüks, konfor ve kampçılık kelimelerinin çalışmalarda daha sık yer aldığı bulunmuştur. Çalışma kapsamında gelecek çalışmalara yönelik önerilerde bulunulmuştur.</p> Nur ÇELİK İLAL Filiz GÜMÜŞ DÖNMEZ Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 1767 1782 10.21325/jotags.2023.1266 Planlı Davranış Kuramı Çerçevesinde Yerel Kahve Deneyiminin Tüketim, Satın Alma ve Tavsiye Etme Niyetine Etkisi (The Impact of Local Coffee Experience on Consumption, Purchase, and Recommendation Intention within the Theory of Planned Behaviour) <p>This study aims to determine the effect of consumers' local coffee experience on consumption, purchase and recommendation intention within the framework of the theory of planned behaviour. The relational survey model and causal research approach are adopted within the framework of the quantitative method. In the study, purposive and convenience sampling techniques, which are non-probability-based sampling methods, are used together. The questionnaire method was used as the data collection technique and the questionnaires were administered by four surveyors between 11.00-20.00 hours between 21 January - 4 February 2023 in the bazaar and university area of Adıyaman Central District within the scope of the distribute-collect technique. Of the 471 questionnaires distributed, 436 were collected (response rate 92.5%) and the analysis was continued with 402 data after removing the outliers. After the validity and reliability of the measurement model were ensured by confirmatory factor analysis, nine hypotheses in the structural model were tested. According to the findings, attitudes perceived behavioural control and, to some extent, subjective norms affect behavioural intentions (consumption, purchase and recommendation) regarding local coffee experience. At the end of the study, theoretical and practical recommendations are presented.</p> Gökhan YILMAZ Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 1783 1808 10.21325/jotags.2023.1267 Öz Uyum ve Kendini Keşfetme Duygusunun Marka Deneyimine Etkisi: Gastronomi Şehri Afyonkarahisar Örneği (Effect of Self-Congruity and Self-Expansion on Brand Experience: The Case of Gastronomy City Afyonkarahisar) <p>This study aims to examine the impact of self-congruity and self-expansion on brand experience among gastronomy tourists visiting the city of Afyonkarahisar. To achieve this goal, the study employed self-congruity, self-expansion, and brand experience scales. The study focused on visitors to the gastronomy city of Afyonkarahisar. A non-probabilistic convenience sampling method was employed to select participants conveniently. The survey technique was used to collect data, and data were gathered from 387 participants who visited Afyonkarahisar in February and March of 2023. The collected survey data were subjected to SPSS Macro Process analysis to test the hypotheses. The findings of the research indicate that self-congruity has a significant and positive impact on both self-expansion feelings and brand experience. In addition, self-expansion feelings also have a significant and positive impact on brand experience. Besides, it was determined that self-expansion feelings play a mediating role. The research results have led to several recommendations.</p> Hakkı ÇILGINOĞLU Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 1809 1826 10.21325/jotags.2023.1268 An Offal Meal in Turkish Culinary Culture: Gaziantep Mumbar Dolması and Related Consumer Opinions <p>In this study, the use of offal as food, offal consumption in the world, the role of offal consumption on sustainability, and the positive and negative effects of offal meals on health are emphasized. In addition, information was given about Gaziantep Mumbar Dolması (Gaziantep Stuffed Intestine), which received geographical indication registration in 2021, and interviews were conducted with 10 participants who experienced this local flavor using the semi-structured interview technique. In line with the data obtained, it was seen that the participants who experienced the Gaziantep Mumbar Dolması also experienced other types of offal. In the results of the research, in which it was determined that Gaziantep Mumbar Dolması was generally liked, it was noted that some participants did not want to know the construction stages of the intestine due to its nature. It has been determined by the statements of some participants that there are hesitations regarding the construction phase of the Gaziantep Mumbar Dolması. In line with the information obtained as a result of the research, various determinations were made and suggestions were presented.</p> Handan ÖZÇELİK BOZKURT Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 1827 1843 10.21325/jotags.2023.1269 Bibliometric Analysis of Literature on Religious Tourism in Web of Science <p>This study aims to assess current trends in religious tourism research utilizing bibliometric approaches and associated materials published between 1992 and 2022. The other three objectives of the study are to describe interesting research topics in religious tourism, to show the advancement of understanding in this area of research, and to identify the essential features of religious tourism studies. The Web of Science bibliographic database is used to collect bibliographic data on religious tourism. After various bibliometric indicators have been summarized, “citation analysis, co-citation analysis, and keyword co-occurrence analysis” are used to establish the relationships between “keywords”, “documents”, “authors”, “sources”, and “countries”. VOSviewer is used to display the results as network maps (version 1.6.18). As a result of the study, it was determined that religious tourism research focused around four main themes such as sustainable development and location, religious tourism, tourism and culture, and religious places and entrepreneurs, and these themes reached the highest number of publications especially in 2019. In addition, it was concluded that the most cited studies were done by Rinschede (1992), Blackwell (2007) and Shinde (2010) and that the most influential journal on religious tourism is Annals of Tourism Research and Turkey is the most cited country.</p> İsa YAYLA Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 1844 1856 10.21325/jotags.2023.1270 Elazığ’da Gastronomi Turizminin Geliştirilmesine Yönelik Bir Araştırma (A Research on the Development of Gastronomy Tourism in Elazig) <p>Gastronomy tourism is the preparation, presentation and consumption of foods in a different culinary culture; It is a type of tourism carried out in order to determine the cuisine, meal systems and eating styles. Gastronomy tourism is one of the elements included in a new cultural heritage and cultural tourism concept. Gastronomy tourism emerges as a phenomenon that continues to increase in importance among tourism types all over the world and in Turkey. The importance of local tastes has increased with gastronomic tourism. In this respect, the aim of this study is to determine the foods that can come to the fore in the development of gastronomic tourism in Elazig. Despite the rich culinary culture of Elazig, it is seen that it is not used enough for tourism purposes. For this purpose, a survey was conducted for the people living in Elazig. The data in the study were collected from 466 people. The use of exploratory research technique was made on the basis of frequency in the analysis of the data obtained, since the survey questions were open-ended. As a result of the analysis, foods that can stand out in the development of gastronomic tourism in Elazig have been determined. Harput meatballs, stuffed meatballs and glaze, one of the local dishes of Elazig, are in the first three places. In the study, it was also concluded that the local people did not have enough information about Elazig gastronomy, and they only made evaluations on known dishes. As a result of the study, the importance of gastronomy tourism was emphasized and suggestions were made for the development of gastronomy tourism in Elazig.</p> Suat ARPACI Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 1857 1872 10.21325/jotags.2023.1271 COVID-19 Sürecinde Ev Dışı Gıda Tüketiminin Değişimi (Change in Consumption of Food Away from Home During the Covid-19) <p>With the economic development, changing consumer demands and needs in many countries have also changed the food consumption patterns outside the home. Knowing the reasons why consumers consume food outside the home is important for the segmentation of the market, the self-positioning of the businesses, and therefore for maintaining their existence. In the dynamic market, it is even more important to determine the behavior of consumers, especially in extraordinary situations. The COVID-19 pandemic, which affected the whole world in 2020, has led to radical changes in all industries, and the service sector has evolved into a new path. This study focused on the change in out-of-home food consumption during the COVID-19 pandemic in Türkiye. The aim of the study is to reveal changes at the consumer level and to determine the effect of COVID-19 on out-of-home food consumption. For this purpose, an online survey was conducted with 800 people selected by simple random method in the provinces of Edirne, Iğdır, Sinop, Muş Adana, Gaziantep, Diyarbakır, and Kayseri. Compared to pre-COVID-19, there has been a decrease of approximately 8 points in food consumption outside the home. While consumers continue to consume food out of the home (FAFH) mostly for social and psychological, savings and hedonic reasons, they do not consume primarily for health and nutritional reasons.</p> Murat İsmet HASEKİ Sibel OĞUZ Zafer BUZCU Celile ÖZÇİÇEK DÖLEKOĞLU Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 1891 1918 10.21325/jotags.2023.1273 Gastronomi Turizminin Çekiciliği ve Geliştirilebilirliği: Zonguldak İlinde Bir Uygulama (Attractiveness and Development of Gastronomy Tourism: An Application in Zonguldak Province) <p>Destinations that want to be permanent in the sector and gain a competitive advantage have gastronomic diversity and enriching it with other touristic values will contribute to raising awareness in the field of tourism and developing a regional image. In this context, the aim of the research is to reveal the gastronomic tourism potential of Zonguldak province. In order to harness the unique local cuisine of the region as a valuable tourism resource, the study has provided examples from the local cuisine and offered various recommendations. Through these efforts, the potential for accelerating the development of the region as a tourist destination has been explored. Qualitative research method was applied in the research method and semi-structured interview technique was used to obtain the data. Interviews were made with people from the people living in Zonguldak and its environs. Within the scope of the study, first of all, gastronomy, gastronomic tourism and the protection of gastronomic heritage were examined conceptually and literature review was made in the relevant fields. According to the findings, it has been determined that the evaluations of the participants regarding the concept of gastronomy are similar, they find Zonguldak rich in gastronomic values, they see the gastronomic heritage as a cultural value, and they find it important to preserve and transfer them to future generations.</p> Neşe KÖKTÜRK Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 1919 1940 10.21325/jotags.2023.1274 Otel İşletmelerinde Kurumsal Sosyal Sorumluluk ve İşe Adanmışlık: Afyonkarahisar Örneği (Corporate Social Responsibility and Work Engagement in Hotel Businesses: Afyonkarahisar Case) <p>As a result of the technological revolutions experienced today, technology has started to replace human resources in many business lines. However, human resources continue to maintain their importance in the tourism sector, which is characterized as a labor-intensive sector. For this reason, it has become an important issue to determine the factors that affect the level of work engagement. This study aimed to determine the effect of employees' perception of corporate social responsibility on their work engagement level. The population of the research was formed by employees of the food and beverage department of the five-star hotel businesses in UNESCO Gastronomy City Afyonkarahisar. According to the findings obtained as a result of the analysis of the data, it was determined that the employees' perceptions of corporate social responsibility and their work engagement were at a moderate level. In addition, it has been determined that there is a significant correlation between the employees' perception of corporate social responsibility and their level of work engagement, and that the perception of corporate social responsibility significantly affects the level of work engagement. This study, which aims to determine the effect of employees' perception of corporate social responsibility on their work engagement level, is important in terms of contributing to the relevant literature. In addition, it is expected to benefit the tourism sector as it shows that corporate social responsibility activities can be utilised to increase employees' work engagement level.</p> Nurullah KART Elbeyi PELİT Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 1941 1969 10.21325/jotags.2023.1275 Yapay Zekâ Gastronomi Eğitimine Katkı Sunabilir Mi? ChatGPT Örneği (Can Artificial Intelligence Contribute to Gastronomy Education? Example of ChatGPT) <p>The aim of this study is to evaluate how ChatGPT can be used in gastronomy education by considering ChatGPT, one of the artificial intelligence applications, within the scope of the case study. The study was designed by adopting the qualitative research method and the data were obtained using the interview technique. ChatGPT answered the question of how artificial intelligence can contribute to gastronomy education in general, “recipe creation, flavor matching and experiences, nutrition customization, virtual cooking assistants, food and flavor analysis, data-driven information and virtual reality and augmented reality”. ChatGPT's answer to the second research question, How can ChatGPT contribute to gastronomy education, is “question and answer and providing information, recipe suggestions and variations, gastronomy knowledge and terminology, food and flavor pairings, cultural and historical information, menu planning and balancing, and gastronomy. discussions and trends”. As a result, considering the current situation of ChatGPT and its potential for development in the future, it has been concluded that it can be a source to support gastronomy education for researchers and students who want to get different opinions and suggestions. It is hoped that the study will contribute to the literature on how ChatGPT can be used in gastronomy education.</p> Serkan YİĞİT Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 1970 1982 10.21325/jotags.2023.1276 Füzyon Mutfak Yeme Eğiliminin Demografik Özellikler Üzerinden İncelenmesi (Analyzing Fusion Cuisine Eating Tendency Based on Demographic Characteristics) <p>Culinary trends, which started with the haute cuisine in the 1600s, changed and developed with the French Revolution, the Industrial Revolution and the world wars that followed. With these developments, the culinary trend known as fusion cuisine emerged. The trend has also found its place in Turkey through the effects of modernization and globalization. This study explores which demographic characteristics of individuals from the Turkish population are more inclined to embrace the new culinary trend of fusion cuisine. It questions “whether there is a notable difference between the demographic traits of the participants and their tendency to consume fusion cuisine?” In this regard, 17 questions were asked to 412 participants. The survey results showed that women over men, the 18-24 age range from other age groups, the single over the married, the people with degrees of higher education over people from other education levels, the unemployed over different occupational groups, and the total household income of 50,001+ TL over the lower income groups are more inclined to eat fusion cuisine.</p> Sinem DİKME Semra AKAR ŞAHİNGÖZ Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 1983 1995 10.21325/jotags.2023.1277 Konaklama Tesislerinde Hizmet Kalitesinin Müşteri Memnuniyetine Etkisi (The Impact of Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction in Accommodation Facilities) <p>The servqual service quality scale is a commonly used model to evaluate the service quality of businesses operating in the service sector. This model assists businesses in determining what they need to do to ensure customer satisfaction by measuring customers' expectations and perceptions regarding service quality. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of service quality on customer satisfaction in accommodation facilities using the Servqual scale. To achieve this goal, data was collected through a survey administered to 415 individuals who had utilized the services of accommodation establishments in the province of Izmir, Turkey. The survey included statements related to participants' demographic characteristics, the quality of services provided in accommodation, and customer satisfaction. The data obtained from the survey was subjected to appropriate analysis methods, including reliability, validity, confirmatory factor analysis, and multiple regression tests. According to the results of these analyses, it was found that each dimension of Servqual service quality (tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy) has a positive impact on customer satisfaction.</p> Yunus DOĞAN Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 1996 2013 10.21325/jotags.2023.1278 Examination of Published Articles About Solo Travel with Bibliometric Mapping Technique <p>While the number of solo travelers is increasing, there is limited research on this topic. This study aims to analyze the articles published on solo travel by using the bibliometric mapping method. Using the Web of Science database, all fields were selected in the search tab and "solo travel" was scanned. Article was selected as the document type, 170 journals were determined without any year or other limitations within the scope of the study, and 266 articles published between 1990-2023 were examined. Articles were analyzed using VOSviewer in terms of publications, authors, countries of authors, keywords in the publication and citations, using bibliometric analysis methods and visualized with network analysis. In line with the findings of the study, it was determined that the articles about traveling alone started to be published in the literature as of 1990 and showed fluctuations after 2005. It has been determined that the most cited journals are "Current Issues in Tourism" and "Tourism Review International", respectively. In addition, it was determined that the most frequently cited keywords were "solo travel", "motivation" and "pressure" in the articles examined, and Little and Wilson were the most cited authors. However, it has been determined that the most productive countries for solo travel are Australia, New Zealand, England and the USA, respectively. This study reveals that solo travel still offers unexplored areas for academic research and provides a basis to inspire future studies.</p> Mehmet UMUR Fadime ERTAN Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 2014 2030 10.21325/jotags.2023.1279 Kahramanmaraş Merkezli Depremlerin Otel İşletmelerine Potansiyel Etkilerinin Otel Yöneticileri Perspektifinden Değerlendirilmesi: Manavgat İlçesi Örneği (Evaluation of the Potential Effects of Kahramanmaraş-Centered Earthquakes on Hotel Enterprises from the Perspective of Hotel Managers: The Case of Manavgat District) <p>The tourism sector, which continues to grow rapidly, is one of the sectors most affected by natural and human disasters. The impact of the negativities created by the recent two major earthquakes centered in Kahramanmaraş on the Turkish tourism sector is inevitable. As a matter of fact, in this research, the potential effects of Kahramanmaraş-based earthquakes on the hotel industry are determined by the opinions of hotel managers in sample of Manavgat district. For this purpose, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 hotel managers. The interviews were analyzed by content analysis and four themes were determined as "changes in tourism demand", "tourism stakeholders", "effects of earthquakes on the district" and "earthquake precautions of hotels". As a result of the findings, it was obtained that especially foreign tourists had security concerns for the district, that the tourism season started late due to the cancellation of reservations, that tourism stakeholders acted quickly after the earthquake and carried out relief activities for earthquake victims and that earthquake victims started to be employed as well as being hosted free of charge in hotels. In addition, the fact that Manavgat district is not an earthquake zone, the presence of low-rise structures and the hotels participating in the research emphasize that they have earthquake-resistant buildings are among the important findings. Finally, in line with the findings obtained, relevant suggestions were presented.</p> Begüm İLBAY VATAN Riva Orhan VATAN Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 2031 2048 10.21325/jotags.2023.1280 Examining the Effect of Mega Sports Event and Host City Experience on Destination Image and Behavioral Intention in the Context of the 5th Islamic Solidarity Games <p>Mega sports events significantly contribute to the promotion, image, and economic development of the destinations in which they are held. It can be stated that mega sports events and host city experience can affect the behavioral intentions of visitors along with the destination image positively or negatively. The research was conducted on foreign visitors who participated in the 5th Islamic Solidarity Games held in Konya City from 9 to 18 August 2022, using the face-to-face survey method. In the research, the effects of mega sports event and host city experience on destination image and behavioral intention have been examined in the context of the 5th Islamic Solidarity Games. Six hypotheses were developed within the context of the research. Examining the data obtained as a consequence of the research, it has been concluded that mega sports event experience has a positive and significant effect on destination image and behavioral intention; host city experience has a positive and significant effect on destination image and behavioral intention; mega sports event experience has a positive and significant effect on host city experience; and destination image has a positive and significant effect on behavioral intention.</p> Emel CELEP Halime Büşra İÇİL Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 2049 2074 10.21325/jotags.2023.1281 Termal Turizme Katılanların Çevrim İçi Yorumlarının İçerik Analiziyle İncelenmesi (Content Analysis of Online Comments of Thermal Tourism Participants) <p>The main purpose of this study is to analyse the online comments of the guests staying in the tourism business certified thermal accommodation facilities in Afyonkarahisar. From this point of view, the content analysis method was used in the study and the comments published on the Tripadvisor site of the thermal accommodation facilities operating in the province of Afyonkarahisar and having a tourism business certificate were examined. Between 01.08.2018-01.08.2023, the comments of the guests who stayed in the mentioned thermal accommodation establishments and left evaluations and comments on the Tripadvisor platform were evaluated. 194,240 words for positive comments and 19,981 words for negative comments were analysed through the MAXQDA qualitative analysis program and word combinations were determined, and a word cloud was created from these combinations. According to the research findings, the positive reviews of the guests staying in thermal facilities in Afyonkarahisar province on Tripadvisor are much higher than the negative reviews. The prominent words in the word cloud of positive evaluations are "housekeeping staff, thermal pool and animation team", while the prominent words in the word cloud of negative evaluations are "all drinks paid, thermal pool and too many customers".</p> Erdem ŞİMŞEK Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 2075 2090 10.21325/jotags.2023.1282 Image-Based Social Media Usage, Holiday Preference, Conspicuous and Status Consumption: Intergenerational Differences <p>Social media refers to the platforms that were introduced during the advent of Web 2.0. These platforms permit users to create and manage their own content. Additionally, social media has been instrumental in transforming our understanding of identity. It has become mandatory for social media users to demonstrate and authenticate their identity to others. This responsibility has spurred some users to cultivate a new persona or augment their current one by sharing unrealistic content with the intention of receiving recognition, adoration and esteem. Moreover, social media has a significant impact on consumption patterns. Historically, consumption was solely about fulfilling basic needs, whereas today it has taken on more of a symbolic meaning. Two examples of this phenomenon include conspicuous consumption and status consumption. The research aims to identify distinctions in social media usage, conspicuous and status consumption trends, and holiday preferences between generations as potential tourists, with the purpose of creating a desirable image. The study analyzed data derived from 697 potential tourists and concluded that there are variations in the use of image-centric social media, conspicuous consumption, and holiday preferences across X, Y and Z generations. No differences in terms of status consumption were found. However, these variances do play an important role in the consumption habits of various generations and the technological opportunities available during their formative years. Marketers can positively affect the effectiveness of their marketing activities through careful analysis of generational consumption patterns and the development of targeted marketing approaches for specific generations.</p> S. Banu YILDIZ İbrahim Halil KAZOĞLU Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 2091 2113 10.21325/jotags.2023.1283 İktisat ve Turizm Politikası Kaymalarının Türkiye’de Turizm Arzına Etkilerinin Yapısal Kırılmalı Birim Kök Testleri ile Analizi (Examining the Effects of Economic and Tourism Policy Shifts on Tourism Supply in Turkiye Using Structural Break Unit Root Test <p>Countries use economic policies as a means to achieve their primary goal of economic growth and to bring economic variables such as income distribution and prices to the desired level. Just like in all other areas, these economic policies are also crucial for the tourism industry. In Türkiye, the tourism industry found its place in national development plans alongside the centrally planned approach called the Planned Period, which began in 1963. This study aims to examine the effects of changes in economic policy approaches implemented after the planned period in Türkiye on tourism supply, accommodation supply in particular, where the most significant reflections of these changes in policies can be observed. For this purpose, annual data for the period 1970-2018 are used to analyze the numbers of tourism investment and operation-certified facilities and bed capacities for accommodation establishments, in addition to the total number of facilities and beds. The Bai-Perron (BP) and Carrion-i Silvestre (CiS) multiple structural break unit root tests were conducted and their findings were compared. Multiple structural breaks were identified in all series. Results demonstrate Law No. 2634 on Tourism Incentives and economic crisis periods have created distinctive shocks to tourism supply. The conclusion section presents recommendations regarding the relationship between tourism policies and tourism supply. Structural break dates obtained from the BP test for structural breaks were interpreted for the relevant period’s economic and tourism policies, and recommendations were developed accordingly.</p> Fırat ÇİFTÇİ İnci Oya COŞKUN Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 2114 2135 10.21325/jotags.2023.1284 Elektronik Ağızdan Ağıza Pazarlama Bağlamında Müşteri Değerlendirmeleri ile Gastronomi İmajı Arasındaki İlişki: Gaziantep Üzerine Bir Araştırma (The Relationship Between Customer Evaluations and Gastronomy Image in the Context of Electronic Word of Mouth <p>Tourist expectations for food and beverage businesses operating in the context of gastronomy tourism are constantly increasing. This situation results in the acceleration of competition day by day. This research was conducted in Gaziantep, which is in the gastronomy category of Unesco Creative Cities Network. Electronic word of mouth marketing is a form of communication that occurs between users and buyers for a product or service. In this direction, the main purpose of the research can be expressed as revealing the relationship between the evaluations made by tourists visiting food and beverage establishments with tourism business certificates operating in Gaziantep within the framework of electronic word-of-mouth marketing and gastronomy image. In this research, which was designed in qualitative design, document analysis method was used to collect the data and the data obtained were subjected to content analysis. Within the scope of the research, the evaluations of these businesses were grouped under the themes of price and menu, service and service, physical structure and food and beverages. According to the results obtained, tourists who visit these establishments evaluate that the prices are high and the menus are insufficient in terms of content. On the other hand, it was determined that the food and beverages offered in these establishments were predominantly described as delicious and the establishments were described as ergonomic in terms of space.</p> Mehmet DÜZGÜN Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 2136 2152 10.21325/jotags.2023.1285 Restoran Tüketicilerinin Dijital Menü Deneyimine Yönelik Görüşleri (Restaurant Consumers' Opinions on The Digital Menu Experience) <p>Recently, as technology has gained importance in every field, food and beverage businesses have started to use technology-based smart applications to enrich the consumer experience. Consumers demand new technological applications in food and beverage businesses due to factors such as having different experiences, discovering new things and fast service. This study aims to reveal the advantages and disadvantages of digital menu applications based on the experiences of restaurant consumers. Qualitative research methods were used in the study. The qualitative research design of this study is the phenomenology design. In the study, easily accessible situation sampling, one of the purposeful sampling methods, was used in sample selection, and face-to-face interviews were conducted with 12 consumers who had experience in using digital menus. The data obtained was analyzed descriptively. As a result of the study, it was seen that digital menu applications in restaurants are demanded by consumers. Advantages of digital menu; It offers visual appeal, offers fast ordering, is modern, hygienic and provides ease of decision-making. The disadvantages of the digital menu are the problem of loading the menu, difficulty of use in older ages, difficulties in scanning the QR code and the inability to communicate with the waiter. In addition to contributing to the literature on digital menus, this study also offers suggestions that will provide a competitive advantage to food and beverage businesses.</p> Merve ÖZGÜR GÖDE Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 2153 2170 10.21325/jotags.2023.1286 Tourism Efficiency: Bootstrap-Data Envelopment and Tobit Panel Data Analysis <p>Tourism is an important sector for countries, not only for cultural but also for economic activities. The tourism sector, which operates effectively, contributes to the development of the country's economy. Therefore, the study aims at calculating tourism efficiency and identifying factors that influence it. The study discussed 18 European countries that are among the world's major destination centers. Firstly, tourism efficiency scores were calculated with the data covering the period 2002-2019. Inputs are the number of tourists and tourism expenditures, and output is tourism revenues. Tourism sector efficiency was calculated with the standard Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model. Because of the possible statistical limitations of the DEA method, analysis was repeated with the Bootstrap-DEA method. The resulting efficiency scores were used as dependent variables in the Tobit model. The variables including per capita income, digitalization, energy consumption, financial development, political stability, and life expectancy at birth were handled as new trends of tourism efficiency in the Tobit panel data analysis. Boostrap DEA results, which yield more accurate results, gave efficiency results for a smaller number of countries than the efficiency analysis performed with standard DEA. Tobit panel data analysis results showed that income per capita, digitalization, political stability, and life expectancy at birth enhanced tourism efficiency. In the study, unlike the literature, tourism efficiency was not considered at the level of companies, but at the level of countries. In addition to the standard DEA analysis, the Bootstrap DEA method was used, which yielded superior results. Additionally, not only the efficiency values were calculated in the study, but also the factors affecting the tourism efficiency were determined.</p> Güven GÜNEY Özlem TOPÇUOĞLU Eda BOZKURT Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 2171 2186 10.21325/jotags.2023.1287 The Impact of Affective Gastronomy Experience on Satisfaction and Revisit Intention: Evidence from Turkey <p>The number of people traveling for food continues to increase day by day. This situation supports the development of gastronomy tourism. In this respect, it has become more important to understand the gastronomy experiences of food lovers. In this study, affective gastronomy experience, which is a new topic in the literature, is addressed. The aim of the study is to understand the impact of tourists' affective gastronomy experiences on satisfaction and revisit intention. The research was conducted in a southern region of Turkey. Data were collected online via Google form between 06.06.2023-05.07.2023. In total, 667 acceptable questionnaires were obtained. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. The results of the analysis showed that the affective gastronomy experience had significant and strong effects on satisfaction and revisit intention. Satisfaction and revisit intention are explained by affective gastronomy intention at a rate of 64% and 36%, respectively. In other words, positive perceptions of the affective gastronomy experience increase both satisfaction and revisit intention. These results emphasize the importance of affective gastronomy experience in the literature. This study offers a new perspective for both decision makers and managers of tourism businesses.</p> Mehmet POLAT Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 2187 2202 10.21325/jotags.2023.1288 Kahve Turizmine İlişkin Sistematik Bir Araştırma (A Systematic Research of Coffee Tourism) <p>The aim of this study is to obtain an in-depth knowledge of the literature on coffee tourism and to synthesize this information to reveal the development and trend of the relevant literature. For this purpose, studies on coffee tourism have been examined with a systematic analysis method. During the review phase, certain inclusion and exclusion criteria were taken as a basis using the PRISMA model, and a total of 18 studies related to coffee tourism were analyzed. The findings of the research show that studies on coffee tourism are mainly handled from the supply side and carried out with a qualitative research approach. On the other hand, there is no study conducted with a systematic approach in the Turkish literature on coffee tourism. In this respect, the present study provides a holistic view of the coffee tourism literature and originality by offering suggestions to academicians and tourism stakeholders for future research and practices for sectoral development of coffee tourism.</p> Ayşe ŞAHİN YILMAZ Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 2203 2222 10.21325/jotags.2023.1289 Evaluation of Foreign Visitors' Turkish Cuisine Experiences on Tripadvisor, an Online Platform: The Case of İstanbul-Beyoğlu <p>The present study aimed to evaluate the Turkish cuisine experiences of foreign visitors through Tripadvisor, an online platform. In line with this purpose, 82 different food establishments with the concept of "Historical Turkish Restaurants, Esnaf Restaurants (restaurants where many dishes from Turkish cuisine are served and the customer prefers one of the options), and Kebap/Pide/Ocakbasi Restaurants (kebab restaurants that serve their customers at tables around a grill)" in the Beyoğlu district of Istanbul Province and included in the Tripadvisor website were analyzed. The content analysis technique, one of the qualitative study methods, was employed in the study. The ranking was from the restaurants that received the most visitor reviews between 2021 and 2022 to the restaurants that received the fewest reviews in order to obtain the total number of reviews on the Tripadvisor website. Especially post-pandemic comments were analyzed to ensure that the data were up-to-date and evaluable. The research data is limited to positive foreign visitor comments in the most common seven different foreign languages between 2021 and 2022. The research resulted in a total of 3455 positive reviews of Turkish cuisine restaurants in the last year (2021-2022). In order of importance, these positive comments are grouped under the categories of taste, service, price, menu, quality, location, and hospitality. These also revealed that foreign visitors focused most on the "taste and service" categories. The absence of any other study examining the Istanbul-Beyoğlu region in previous online evaluation studies emphasizes the importance of this study. This study is thought to shed light on the studies to be conducted in the future, especially on Turkish cuisine.</p> Elif RAMADANOĞLU Ecem İNCE KARAÇEPER Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 2223 2237 10.21325/jotags.2023.1290 Sürdürülebilir Turizm Ekseninde Birleşmiş Milletler 2030 Sürdürülebilir Kalkınma Hedeflerinin Bibliyometrik Analizi (Bibliometric Analysis of the United Nations 2030 Sustainable Development Goals on the Axis of Sustainable Tourism) <p>In 2015, the United Nations adopted 17 Sustainable Development Goals to promote sustainable development. Governments, the United Nations World Tourism Organization and the tourism sector are not indifferent to these goals and are carrying out various efforts to promote sustainable tourism. These efforts aim to ensure the sustainable growth of the tourism sector, improve the well-being of communities and conserve natural resources. It is known that scientific publications are the academic equivalent of the efforts carried out around the world to promote sustainable tourism and support its practices. This study focuses on this idea and tries to identify the link between sustainable tourism and 17 goals in the academic literature. For this purpose, the current situation was evaluated by analyzing the years, amount, authors, number of citations, links and other metrics of the publications produced within the scope of a specific subject and discipline. Data from the Web of Science (WoS) database was used for the questions developed for this endeavor. The VOSviewer program was used to enable bibliometric mapping. As a result of the information obtained, it has been determined that researchers do not pay enough attention to certain goals that are expected to come to the fore with the concept of sustainable tourism. It is thought that the study will contribute to researchers who will work on sustainable tourism for effective resource selection.</p> Emre TANKUŞ Alptekin SÖKMEN Neriman Gonca GÜZEL ŞAHİN Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 2238 2263 10.21325/jotags.2023.1291 Yerel Halkın Turizme Yönelik Kızgınlık Algısının Yaşam Kalitesi ve Turizme Verilen Destek Üzerindeki Etkisi: Mardin İli Örneği (The Impact of Local People's Perception of Irritation Towards Tourism on Quality of Life and Support for Tourism: The Case of Mardin Province) <p>This research aims to examine the impact of local people's perceptions towards the impacts of tourism in Mardin on their quality of life and their support for tourism based on the Doxey irritation index. In the research, 410 people from the local people of Mardin were reached by simple random sampling method. Descriptive statistics, reliability analysis, exploratory factor analysis, correlation analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and the structural equation path model were used in the analysis of the data. As a result of the research, it has been found 1) the apathy phase has a significant and positive impact on the quality of life, 2) the antagonism phase has a significant and negative impact on the quality of life, 3) the euphoria phase has a significant and positive impact on the support for tourism, 4) the antagonism phase has a significant and negative impact on support for tourism, and 5) the quality of life has a significant and positive impact on the support for tourism. In line with the results of the research, some solutions and suggestions were made to tourism planning and decision-makers in order to ensure the sustainable development of tourism in the province of Mardin, to improve the quality of life of the local people by understanding their views on the effects of tourism and to increase their support for tourism. The main limitations of this research are that the research is mostly carried out in the Artuklu and Midyat districts due to time and cost savings and the low number of female participants due to the difficulty of reaching female participants.</p> Begüm Dilara EMİROĞLU Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 2264 2293 10.21325/jotags.2023.1292 Otel İşletmelerinde Eko-Etiketli Ürünlerin Kullanımına Yönelik Tutum ve Eğilimlerin Değerlendirilmesi (Evaluation of Attitudes and Tendencies Towards the Use of Eco-Labeled Products in Hotel Businesses) <p>The use of environmentally friendly eco-labeled products in accommodation businesses is important both for businesses to gain a competitive advantage and to fulfill their environmental responsibilities. In this respect, the main purpose of this study is to determine the level of use of eco-labeled products in accommodation businesses, which have an important place in tourism activities, and at the same time to evaluate the attitudes of middle and senior managers in these businesses towards eco-labeled products. The study was designed as a qualitative research. In line with the purpose of the study, data were collected from accommodation establishments. The semi-structured interview technique, one of the qualitative methods, was applied in the study. The data obtained were analyzed using appropriate qualitative data analysis programs. In this context, Code-Sub-Code and Word Cloud models were visualized and interpreted. According to the findings of the study, accommodation establishments have a tendency to use eco-labeled products in order to be a part of sustainability and environmentally friendly movements and to protect nature. Businesses that already use eco-labeled products aim to continue to use them in the future. Businesses that do not use these products complain about cost, supply problems and lack of product diversity. However, they aim to create opportunities and use these products in the future.</p> Ebru ARICI Aziz Gökhan ÖZKOÇ Orhan BATMAN Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 2294 2309 10.21325/jotags.2023.1293 Akıllı Turizm Teknolojilerinin Turist Tatminine ve Yeniden Ziyaret Etme Niyetine Etkisi (The Effect of Smart Tourism Technologies on Tourist Satisfaction and Revisit Intention) <p>The trend towards smart technologies in tourism destinations is increasing and this situation prompts researchers to make studies of this area. From this point of view, the aim of this research is to examine the effect of smart tourism technologies on tourist satisfaction and re-visit intention The sample of the research consists of 385 tourists, 138 womenand 247 men, who came to Çanakkale for touristic intention in the summer of 2023. Three scales were used in the study. These are one to measure the perceptions of tourists towards smart tourism technologies, one to measure their travel satisfaction and the other to measure the re-visit intention of the tourists to Çanakkale destination.The hypotheses were tested with the help of structural model analysis the AMOS program was used to carry out there lated tests.The satisfaction levels of tourists' perceptions of smart tourism Technologies were statistically significant and it was understood that it explained 41.2% positively. As a result, it has been understood that smart tourism Technologies increase the satisfaction of tourists and positively affect the tourists' re-visit intention.</p> Ebru Özlem KORKUTATA Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 2310 2327 10.21325/jotags.2023.1294 Yerel Yiyeceklerin Destinasyonu Tekrar Ziyaret ve Tavsiye Etme Niyeti Üzerindeki Etkisi: Beyşehir Sazanı Örneği (The Effect of Local Food on the Re-visit and Recommendation Intention: The Case of Beysehir Carp) <p>Recent studies show that local foods offered in destinations have become important components that affect tourist preferences and contribute to the success of destinations. It is stated that the studies conducted in this direction generally focus on the pre-visit and visit processes, while the post-visit behavioural intentions such as revisit are neglected. In this study, the effect of local food on tourists' post-visit behavioural intentions is examined with the developed structural equation model. The results show that factors such as price perception, restaurant atmosphere and service, sensory appeal, emotional value and health perception are effective in determining satisfaction with local food, while the most effective factors are price perception, restaurant atmosphere and service. It has been determined that satisfaction with local food affects the recommendation and revisit intention.</p> Yüksel GÜRSOY Engin TENGİLİMOĞLU Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 2328 2348 10.21325/jotags.2023.1295 Sosyal Medyanın Kış Turizmi Destinasyonlarının Tanıtımında Yeri ve Önemi: Çambaşı Kayak Merkezi Örneği (The Role and Importance of Social Media in the Promotion of Winter Tourism Destinations: The Example of Çambaşı Ski Resort) <p>Today, social media is an important interaction tool through which people share content and communicate with other people around the world. Social media is used in many areas from communication to information, entertainment to business, education to art, science to health, and promotion to marketing. Social media, which plays an important role in the conduct of marketing activities, is also widely used in the tourism sector. Within the framework of winter tourism, one of the most important market segments that stands out today is the winter sports market. In this context, the main purpose of this research is to determine the extent to which social media is used in the promotion of prominent destinations within the scope of winter tourism and to develop suggestions for its effective use. In this direction, in order to determine the weaknesses and strengths of Ordu Çambaşı Ski Resort in social media marketing, 305 social media content such as images, videos, etc. of Ordu Çambaşı Ski Resort shared on Instagram between 22.01.2019 and 11.03.2022 were examined and analyzed using descriptive and content analysis methods. As a result of the findings, it was determined that the Instagram application was regularly used by Çambaşı Ski Resort with frequent posts and that it was tried to attract visitors through the application.</p> Emrah KARA Onur ATAK Hüseyin ÇEKEN Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 2349 2362 10.21325/jotags.2023.1296 Paket Tur Konusunda Yapılan Araştırmaların Bibliyometrik Analizi: Web of Science Örneği (Bibliometric Analysis of Research on Package Tour: A Web of Science Example) <p>In this study, it is aimed to examine the articles on package tours in the international literature. Web of science database was searched with the keyword package tour and 108 articles were selected according to various criteria. The articles were analyzed based on parameters such as publication year, journal name, number of authors, author names, institutions and countries that authors worked for, research design, keywords and citations. In addition to percentage and frequency analyses, VOSviewer program was used for collaboration between authors, citation relationships and keyword analysis. According to the findings, it was determined that the first article on package tours was published in 1994 and the most articles were published in 2019. The most articles on the subject were published in the journal named Tourism Management. Most of the articles were written with quantitative methods. The most articles were written by Sheng-Hshiung Tsaur. The most cited and collaborated author is Wang, Kuo-Ching. Keyword analysis revealed nine clusters and co-citation analysis revealed six clusters.</p> Esra GÜL YILMAZ Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 2380 2400 10.21325/jotags.2023.1298 İş Güvencesizliği Algısının Presenteizm Düzeyine Etkisinde Duygusal Tükenmişliğin Aracı Rolü: Turizm Sektörü Çalışanlarına Yönelik Bir Araştırma (The Mediator Role of Emotional Exhaustion in the Effect of Job Insecurity Perception on Presenteeism Level: A Study on Tourism Sector Employees) <p>In this study, the mediating role of emotional burnout in the effect of job insecurity perception on the level of presenteeism is investigated by analyzing the data obtained from individuals who are actively working in the tourism sector, which is an important service industry. In this study, it is aimed to fill the gap in previous research and contribute to the literature by including the mediator role of emotional burnout in the relationship between job insecurity and presenteeism. Structural Equation Modeling was preferred in the analysis of the relationships between the variables and in testing whether there is a mediating variable effect. As a result of the research, it was determined that the perception of job insecurity of individuals predicts presenteeism and emotional burnout; emotional burnout predicts presenteeism. In addition, according to the model in which emotional burnout is the mediating variable, it was determined that the effect of job insecurity, which is the independent variable, on presenteeism is still significant and has a partial mediation effect.</p> Yakup ÖZTÜRK Aslı ÖZTÜRK Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 2401 2417 10.21325/jotags.2023.1299 Erzurum’un Karnavas Dut Pekmezi: Gastronomik Miras ve Coğrafi İşaretle Buluştuğu Noktada Gelenek ve Yenilik Arasındaki Diyalektik (Karnavas Mulberry Molasses of Erzurum: The Dialectic Between Tradition and Innovation at the Point Where Gastronomic Heritage Meets Geographical Indication) <p>Molasses is a historical and cultural heritage of Turkish cuisine. It is known both for its energy-providing properties and its rich nutritional value. Produced in both liquid and solid forms in various regions of Turkey, this product has a wide range of uses, from the energy sector to the pharmaceutical industry, from animal nutrition to the food industry. The focal point of this study is the Karnavas mulberry molasses produced in the Ormanağzı (Karnavas) village of Erzurum, which has received geographical indication registration. This study aims to examine in detail the production processes, uniqueness, and the advantages and challenges brought by the geographical indication of Karnavas molasses. Adopting a qualitative methodology, the research deeply explores the experiences, knowledge, and perspectives of molasses producers in the village through semi-structured interviews. As a result of the NVivo qualitative data analyses, themes and sub-themes were identified regarding the challenges faced by molasses producers, consumption habits, the importance of geographical indications, and many other topics. This study serves as a valuable resource for researchers, policymakers, and practitioners in the field of gastronomy, offering recommendations for the preservation, promotion, and sustainability of Karnavas mulberry molasses. This study also recommends developing regulatory policies to prevent the destruction of culture and molasses.</p> Erkan DENK Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 2418 2447 10.21325/jotags.2023.1300 Açık Kaynak Kodlu R Uygulaması ile Bibliyometrik Analiz: Helal Turizm Alanında Yapılan İndeksli Yayınlar Üzerine Bir İnceleme (A Bibliometric Analyse with Open- Source R Aplication a Research on Indexed Editions in Halal Tourism Field) <p>The aim of this study is to analyse the conceptual, intellectual and social forms of the studies about halal tourism in years and to take a photo of the overall development of academic literature in this field. For that purpose, the academic articles in English that are published in Scopus data base till 31.08.2023 are scanned. It is decided to sample 206 of the articles that are analysed in regard to the inclusion and exclusion criterias. Bibliometrics package partaking in R statistics program is used to analyse the datas.&nbsp; According to the findings it is seen that the concepts of tourism destinations and tourism development come into prominance at the conceptual forms of the studies about halal tourism and the phenomenas like tourist behaviours and tourist perception are frequently dwelled on. As to analyse the social forms of the studies in this field, it is seen that halal tourism topic is more studied predominantly in countries like Indonesia and Malaysia. Besides the other findings are presented by various visualising at the study and they are believed to form a general frame for researcers who plans to study at this field.</p> Fuat BAYRAM Özkan ERDEM Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 2463 2477 10.21325/jotags.2023.1302 The Relationship Between Employee Attitudes in the Pygmalion Effect and Trust in Supervisors: A Study on Hotel Establishments <p>Regardless of the type of business, the common goal of every establishment is to make sustainable profits and thus to ensure its continuity. In the service sector, which also includes tourism establishments, where social relations and labor power are intense, the productivity and profitability of establishments completely depend on the human factor. For this reason, the managers in these establishments want to get the highest benefit from the employees and they enter into an expectation in this direction. Managers who expect employees to show higher performance reveal these expectations by showing interest to their employees. This situation is referred to as the “Pygmalion effect” in the literature. On the other hand, in addition to this effect, the trust of the employees in their supervisors plays an important role in increasing the productivity in the establishments. The aim of this study is to reveal the relationship/effect between the attitudes of employees working in hotels towards the Pygmalion effect and their level of trust in the supervisor. This study only covers employees of four-star and five-star hotels operating in Istanbul. In the study, only the Pygmalion effect and trust in the supervisor variables of the participants were discussed, and other forms of organizational behavior were not focused on. The important factor here is the resources and transportation allocated to the study, especially time limitation. Questionnaire technique was used as a data collection tool, and 423 usable questionnaires were obtained from four-star and five-star hotels operating in Istanbul. According to the findings obtained from the analysis of the data, it was found that the participants' perception of the Pygmalion effect and their level of trust in the supervisor were high. When the relations and effects between the variables were examined, it was observed that there were weak relationships between the attitudes in the Pygmalion effect of the participants and their level of trust in the supervisor. On the other hand, it was determined that there was a very weak relationship between Pygmalion effect attitude in the “general self-efficacy (GSE)” dimension and trust in the supervisor, a very weak relationship between the Pygmalion effect attitude in the “managerial self-efficacy (MSE)” dimension and trust in the supervisor, and a weak relationship between the Pygmalion effect attitude in the “Pygmalion Attitude Index (PAI)” dimension and trust in the supervisor.</p> Şerif Ahmet DEMİRDAĞ Eray TURPCU Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 2478 2494 10.21325/jotags.2023.1303 Hatay İlinde Faaliyet Gösteren Yiyecek İçecek İşletmelerini Ziyaret Eden Turistlerin Algıladıkları Değer ve Fiyat Uygunluğunun Gıda Güvenliği Algısı Üzerindeki Etkisi (The Impact of Perceived Value and Price Suitability on Food Safety Perception for Tourists Visiting Food and Beverage Businesses in Hatay Province) <p>The perception of food safety in food and beverage establishments is considered an essential factor for the success of destinations and businesses competitive advantage. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to examine the food safety perceptions of tourists visiting Hatay and the perceived value and price fairness that are believed to influence these perceptions. The population of the study consists of tourists who visited Hatay. The survey method was employed to collect data, and 456 questionnaires were obtained. Percentage, frequency, mean, correlation, and path analysis were conducted using appropriate statistical software for data analysis. The studies revealed a strong relationship between the value and food safety perceptions of tourists. In contrast, a moderately significant relationship was found between price fairness and food safety perceptions. Furthermore, it was determined that the perceived value significantly influenced the food safety perception at a high level. In contrast, price fairness had a positive but low-level impact on food safety perception. Based on this study's findings and the sectoral and academic implications, food and beverage establishments should enhance their food safety measures and integrate them into their marketing strategies. Additionally, businesses must adopt a clear and transparent communication strategy regarding food safety to increase tourists' perceived value and improve price fairness.</p> Emre AYKAÇ Sait DOĞAN Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 2495 2511 10.21325/jotags.2023.1304 Manavgat Destinasyonunda Bulunan Beş Yıldızlı Otellerin Web Sitelerine Yönelik Bir İçerik Analizi (A Content Analysis Regarding the Websites of Five Star Hotels in Manavgat Destination) <p>As the use of the Internet continues to increase, websites have been serving as virtual gateways that inform, engage and attract visitors and can provide vital information about the hotels, their amenities, locations, room types, and services. In this article, a content analysis was conducted by analyzing the websites of 144 5-star hotels in Manavgat destination in Antalya between 01.01.2023 and 30.06.2023. Depending on the related literature research, 8 different themes were developed. The findings of the research have revealed that communication and transportation facilities are effectively included in hotel websites, visual contents of the business related to pre-sales marketing activities are used at an optimum level, and payment method is mostly provided by credit card and Turkish Lira. Moreover, it has been determined that the promotion of the destinations is used less than the promotion of the hotels. Finally, while businesses use social media applications effectively, online guestbooks and complaint forms are not offered on the majority of the websites. As a consequence, the efficient use of hotel websites is of great importance both for the success of the marketing activities and the convenience of the purchasing processes for the visitors.</p> Hüseyin KELEŞ Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 2512 2534 10.21325/jotags.2023.1305 The Fallout of the Pandemic: An Investigation of Oman Tourist Destination Brand Equity <p>Oman is in the process of diversifying its economy by identifying other sectors to lessen dependency on petroleum products. Many such sectors are identified as tourism, manufacturing, fisheries, mining, transportation, and logistics. Coronavirus pandemic has a significant impact on the global economy. As countries around the globe begin to emerge from the pandemic, what will be the new normal for tourism? This new normal is already beginning to affect tourism sector in Sultanate of Oman. The present study explores how the fallout of the pandemic will affect destination brand equity from a tourist perspective. However, most of the previous studies that deal with the similar issues, do not include effective ways to develop Oman tourism destination as a brand.&nbsp; The results reveal that destination Oman significantly satisfies all dimensions of brand equity, i.e., brand awareness, perceived quality, brand association, and brand loyalty. The perceived risk dimension is also extracted in the study to recognize the impact of pandemic crises.</p> Vishal JAIN Parul JAIN Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 2535 2548 10.21325/jotags.2023.1306 Glamping İşletmeleri Ziyaretçi Yorumlarının İçerik Analizi: Tripadvisor Türkiye Örneği (Content Analysis of Glamping Establishments Visitor Reviews: The Example of Tripadvisor Türkiye) <p>In recent years, the understanding of sustainability and sustainable tourism gains importance for both businesses and consumers. Tourists' orientation to environmentally friendly touristic businesses in natural life has also led to the development of glamping businesses, which is one of the alternative accommodation businesses. While tourists prefer alternative accommodation opportunities that are intertwined with nature, they also pay attention to service quality. This study was carried out with the aim of determining which features of the glamping establishments are prioritized in the service perceptions of the people staying at the glamping establishments in Türkiye. For this purpose, a content analysis was applied for a total of 519 visitor comments of glamping establishments in Türkiye on the Tripadvisor site. Content analysis was carried out using the MAXQDA 2020 program. According to the results, a total of 1945 coding was carried out. As a result of the research, four main codes and nineteen sub-codes were determined. The main codes and sub-codes are facility tangible amenities (food and beverage facilities, cleanliness/hygiene, facility physical accommodation facilities, in-facility amenities/landscaping, facility concept/decoration), facility intangible amenites (service quality, calmness/peace, hospitality, price-quality balance), comfort, facility atmosphere/environment, security), facility management approach (alternative activities, family and child-friendly hotel, pet-friendly hotel, on-site discounts/services included in the price, sustainable tourism practices/environmental sensitivity) and environmental amenities (natural amenities of the facilit</p> Özge ADAN GÖK Ceren Miral ÇAVDIRLI Ceylan ALKAN Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 2549 2572 10.21325/jotags.2023.1307 Gastronomi Tur Deneyiminde Kuşakların Rolü: Gaziantep Örneği (The Role of Generations in the Gastronomy Tour Experience: The Case of Gaziantep) <p>The purpose of this research is to examine the differences between generations and experience perceptions of domestic tourists in the context of their participation in gastronomy tours. A quantitative research approach was adopted in the study. The data collection technique applied was the questionnaire method while the purposive sampling method was used in determining the sample. Research data were obtained from domestic tourists in Gaziantep, which is an important center in terms of gastronomy tourism. These data were collected from local tourists who participated in gastronomy tours between June 10 and July 05, 2023 and were willing to participate in the research, face-to-face and online at the end of the gastronomy tour. A total of 418 surveys were conducted; however, 27 surveys were excluded from the analysis due to missing data, and 391 surveys were considered valid. In this context, it was investigated whether there is any difference between the generations of the participants and their perceptions of the gastronomy tour they participated in. Explanatory Factor Analysis and one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were employed as data analysis methods to investigate potential differences among group means. The study's results revealed distinctions in sensory experience perceptions between Generation X and Generation Z. Furthermore, variations in emotional experience perceptions were evident among Generation X and Generation Z, Generation Y and Generation X, and Generation Z and Generation X. Moreover, cognitive experience perceptions exhibited differences across Generation X and Generation Y, Generation X and Generation Z, Generation Y and Generation X, Generation Y and Generation Z, Generation Z and Generation X, as well as Generation Z and Generation Y.</p> Adem ADEMOĞLU Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 2573 2598 10.21325/jotags.2023.1308 İzmir’in Coğrafi İşaretli Lezzeti: Boyoz Yeme Motivasyonunun Tekrar Ziyaret Etme Niyeti Üzerine Etkisi (Geographically Indicated Product of Izmir: The Effect of Boyoz Eating Motivation on Revisit Intention) <p>In this study, the effect of the geographically indicated product of İzmir, Boyoz, on the intention to revisit was measured. For this purpose, online and face-to-face surveys were conducted with tourists who visited Izmir and tasted Boyoz at least once. The effects of excitement, culture, sensory, and health factors on revisit intention in the short, medium, and long term were examined. As a result of 453 surveys, it was determined that the excitement factor affects the intention to revisit in the short, medium, and long term and the cultural and health factors only in the medium and long term. In this respect, Boyoz tasting in İzmir has the potential to make tourists’&nbsp; trips more colorful and attractive. This study suggests workshops about Boyoz, telling the story of the local product, and different presentation techniques used as activities that will increase interest in Boyoz. In addition, it is concluded that the sensory appeal of Boyoz and the excitement motivation of tourists can be increased by sharing these interactive studies on social media and similar channels.</p> Yağmur CAN GABERLİ Ümit GABERLİ Volkan GENÇ Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 2599 2617 10.21325/jotags.2023.1309 Tüketici tercihlerinde Renk ve Görselliğin Lezzet ve Genel Kabul Edilebilirlik Üzerindeki Etkisi: El Yapımı Çikolata Örneği (The Impact of Color and Visuals on Taste and General Acceptability in Consumer Preferences: A Handmade Chocolate Example) <p>In this research, the impact of color and visual elements on taste and overall acceptability in consumer preferences has been investigated. Building upon this premise, this research examines the impact of color and visual presentation on taste perception and overall acceptability in consumer preferences. Employing an experimental design, the study was conducted within a Chocolate Workshop setting, where semi-trained 24 participants were subjected to tasting 3 different handcrafted chocolates prepared with varying colors and visual presentations. Data was collected from participants through a questionnaire incorporating a designed scale for sensory analysis. The obtained data was subjected to statistical analysis using appropriate software, and the results were subsequently interpreted. Data was tested using the Friedman Test and Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test. According to the findings of the study, the influence of color and visual presentation on taste perception and overall acceptability in consumer preferences was identified. Artisan chocolate (colorful) emerged as the most preferred option among the panelists. The recommendations section of the study offers insights for chocolate production by taking color and visual presentation into account.</p> Cevat ERCİK İbrahim İLHAN Seda Nur KESKİN Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 2618 2638 10.21325/jotags.2023.1310 Fixed Ipad Technology as an Innovation Idea in Chain Accommodation Businesses <p>In this study "Fixed iPad" technology is proposed as an innovative idea in chain accommodation businesses. The use of the proposed technology in accommodation businesses has been discussed and evaluated. In this study, the Diffusion of Innovations Theory is adopted. The idea of a “Fixed iPad” has been proposed to chain accommodation businesses. MAXQDA analysis program was used to visualize the data. The study showed that standards, suitability for the target, cost, and infrastructure are crucial determinants of innovation processes. It has been determined that chain accommodation enterprises cannot make decisions outside the standards. It has been determined that conducting R&amp;D studies can be beneficial in innovation processes. In general, there is the opinion that the proposed innovation can have a positive effect on performance, satisfaction, and competition. A framework for the acceptance of innovations has been developed for chain accommodation businesses. This framework can be a prediction of innovation behavior toward chain accommodation businesses.</p> Gürkan ÇALIŞKAN Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 2639 2657 10.21325/jotags.2023.1311 Duygusal Yeme (Emotional Eating) <p>When individuals find themselves in difficult situations, experience anger, happiness, depression, or other emotional distress, they engage in excessive eating behavior. Certain emotional states influence emotional eating, such as anger, stress, happiness, depression, boredom, and more. Food and beverages serve not only to meet individuals' physiological or biological needs to sustain their lives but also to fulfill their psychological needs. Emotions, as well as logic, are factors that assist in the decision-making process. Age, gender, and physical and mental stages cause individuals to experience changes in their emotional states. Individuals' food choices and consumption are also influenced by their emotional states. One of the methods to change this situation is to find solutions for negative emotional states and eliminate them. Unless psychological problems are completely resolved, interventions from external sources will only provide temporary solutions for individuals with emotional eating issues. Besides seeking psychological support, special diets and treatments are sought to address these problems. In the study, a total of 72 articles were found related to the subject, and among them, a total of 11 studies conducted between 2013 and 2023 were examined. The studies were analyzed in terms of their type and purpose. Then, all the studies were examined in the light of the literature. According to the research results, it was concluded that emotional eating behavior is positively influenced by parental attitudes, suppressed emotions, stress, anger, boredom, and many other factors.</p> Sıla DURAN Mesut Murat ADABALI Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 1873 1890 10.21325/jotags.2023.1272 Anadolu Mutfağında Şerbet Kültürü ve Yaygınlaşmasına Yönelik Öneriler (Sherbet Culture in Anatolian Cuisine and Suggestions for the Dissemination) <p>The history of sherbet, which has an important place among our traditional drinks, dates back to very ancient times. This beverage had its “golden age” during the Ottoman Empire; has spread to European countries thanks to the many different sherbet types, providing important health benefits and its cooling properties. Sherbet, which is an important product enough to be produced and sold under the legal norm of ottoman law; unfortunately, it does not see the value it deserves today. The reasons for this are Its low awareness, local production and consumption, limited availability compared to soft drinks in the market, lack of standardization in production and having short shelf life. In this context, the purpose of the study is to provide information about the history of sherbet and its importance in Anatolian cuisine, to reveal the physicochemical properties of various sherbets, to explain the problems experienced in its commercialization, to evaluate the impact of new food preservation methods on sorbet to increase its quality and shelf life, and finally to provide suggestions to ensure its widespread use.</p> Serpil ADAY Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 2363 2379 10.21325/jotags.2023.1297 A Research on Tourism Development Paradox and Success Criteria in Tourism <p>Almost all countries, especially underdeveloped and least developed countries, are in an effort to develop the tourism sector. The main purpose of this study is to gain a different perspective on success criteria in the tourism sector. In this study, the success in the tourism sector of the countries listed according to various criteria in the barometers published in the January 2023 by the UNWTO was compared with other data of countries such as GDP, area, population, import, export. It has been tried to reveal how successful any country, which is in the first place in a certain field, is according to different variables. In the study, the data of the countries in different fields were compared through tables and a different perspective was presented to the success criteria. As a result, it has been found that some countries, which are considered successful in tourism according to various criteria by UNWTO, are unsuccessful in comparison with other data.</p> İsa YAYLA Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 11 3 2448 2462 10.21325/jotags.2023.1301