Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies <p>Journal of Tourism and Gastronomy Studies is an academic, refereed, online and open access journal publishing research, review, and theoretical articles in the field of tourism and gastronomy. The journal is published four times a year. The articles to be submitted should be in English or Turkish. Journal of Tourism and Gastronomy Studies welcomes articles from different institutions and countries. All manuscripts submitted to the Journal of Tourism and Gastronomy Studies is sent to the referees after the initial review of the editorial board with respect to formatting and content. Manuscripts must be submitted in accordance with the style of writing specified in the book of “The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th edition).</p> <p><span style="color: #000000; font-family: -apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, 'Segoe UI', Roboto, Oxygen-Sans, Ubuntu, Cantarell, 'Helvetica Neue', sans-serif; font-size: 17.4352px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;"> </span></p> en-US (Prof.Dr. İrfan YAZICIOĞLU) (Prof.Dr. İrfan YAZICIOĞLU) Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0300 OJS 60 Cooking with ChatGPT and Bard: A Study on Competencies of AI Tools on Recipe Correction, Adaption, Time Management and Presentation <p>With its potential use in many areas including food and beverage sector, artificial intelligence has become one of the most prominent topics recently, partly due to the new AI tools. This study evaluates the competencies of ChatGPT (versions 3.5 and 4) and Bard in relation to food recipes by assigning tasks in five different areas: recipe correction, recipe adaptation, recipe detailing, time management, and presentation. The responses were then analyzed. It was observed that ChatGPT 4 outperformed the other tools in recipe correction, time management and presentation tasks while it gave similar results with ChatGPT 3.5 in recipe adaptation and recipe detailing tasks. Bard performed better than ChatGPT 3.5 in recipe correction but performed worse than both tools in all other tasks. Subsequent discussions highlighted the strengths and limitations of the tools. While these tools’ scores may not yet outperform a professional chef in the assigned tasks, they can be alternative and supportive assets in the gastronomy field considering their rapid response rates. Along with the potential use of the tools in tasks such as adapting recipes, managing time, and generating presentation ideas, the ongoing development and interaction of AI tools and related technologies could contribute significantly to the food industry in the future.</p> Ahmet Hakan DEĞERLİ , Nevruz Berna TATLISU Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Yemek Bağlamında Kültürlerarası Etkileşim: Göç, Yemek ve Kimlik İlişkisi Üzerine Kavramsal Bir Çalışma (Interaction in the Context of Food: A Conceptual Study on the Relationship between Migration, Food, and Identity) <p>This study examines the relationship between migration, food, and identity. Drawing upon various academic studies, the impact and interactions of immigrant food culture on the host society are emphasized. Research suggests that immigrant cuisine can exhibit resistance, adaptation, and even influence the consumption preferences of the host community's culinary culture. Additionally, it highlights that the migration of food culture can facilitate the emergence of a new fusion cuisine by combining with the culinary traditions of the host society. The rationale behind this study is to comprehend the interactions between immigrant and host community food cultures. In this context, the study explores how these interactions are shaped and which factors influence this process. By doing so, the aim is to deepen the understanding of the relationship between migration and food, and to enhance intercultural communication and understanding.</p> Furkan DURSUN , Cem Oktay GÜZELLER Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Yavaş Şehir Güdül’ün Turizm Potansiyelinin Değerlendirilmesi (Evaluation of The Tourism Potential of Cittaslow Güdül) <p>Cittaslow (slow city) can be expressed as a social action and organization that conveys cultural values at the local level and encourages slowness in life style. Cittaslow destinations aim to preserve their unique qualities and improve residents’ and visitors’&nbsp; quality of life of by encouraging interactions between people, places and resources. Thanks to this type of advocacy, participating destinations are attracting increased attention. This movement parallels with the growing interest in destination attachment in tourism research. Güdül district, which is the first Cittaslow of Ankara and the Central Anatolia Region was chosen as the research area. The aim of the study is to examine the tourism potential of Güdül district in the context of Cittaslow. For this purpose, the tourism potential of a certified destination was evaluated from the perspectives of service actors (public, NGOs, private enterprises). One of the qualitative data collection techniques, the interview technique,&nbsp; was used as the data collection tool in the this study. The findings reveal various dimensions such as community environment and administration service, cultural resources and values, and natural resources and conservation. In the current study, it is proposed to integrate natural, cultural and local components in better planning and management of Güdül as a slow tourism destination.</p> Halime EŞİYOK , Yüksel ÖZTÜRK Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 İkinci El Pazarlarında Üretim ve Satış Yapan Kadın Girişimcilerin Sürdürülebilir Pazarlamaya Etkileri: Köyceğiz İlçesi Örneği <p>International unions, environmental non-governmental organizations and states constantly express in global common platforms that future generations will have to continue their lives with great difficulties and call for urgent measures to be taken. In this context, second-hand markets are considered as an element that can contribute to reducing the amount of waste in many sectors and recycling, a concept used within the scope of sustainable marketing. It is thought that the role of women entrepreneurs is important in the functionality of the second-hand markets and their contribution to sustainable marketing. In this study, the role of women entrepreneurs in the formation and effectiveness of second-hand markets is determined and their contributions to sustainable marketing are examined. The aim hand markets in sustainable marketing. With this study, it is planned to make both sustainable marketing activities and women entrepreneurship more effective in second-hand markets. One of the goals of the study is to bring the materials used by women in the disadvantaged group in the labor market to the position of reproducing. With these aspects of the research, it is thought to be an original study in terms of eliminating the deficiency in the literature. Qualitative research method was used in the study. It is assumed that the study will mobilize and shed light on potential women entrepreneurs who want to venture in this field but do not dare.</p> Figen GÜRCOŞKUN , Kadriye KUBAT , Arzu AKDENİZ Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Turistlerin Finansal Memnuniyeti ile Finansal Tavsiye Almalarının Finansal Yetenekler Aracılığıyla Tavsiye Etme Niyetlerine Etkisinde Sosyal Medyanın Düzenleyiciliği (The Moderating Effect of Social Media on the Effect of Tourists' Financial Satisfaction <p>This study examines the moderating role of social media in the relationship between financial satisfaction, financial advice, financial capabilities, and the intention to recommend among Russian, German, English, and Polish tourists visiting the Alanya district. To achieve the research objective, surveys were distributed in four different languages (German, Russian, English, and Polish) to 261 tourists visiting Alanya. Confirmatory factor analysis, correlation analysis, regression analysis, and Heyes Model 59 test were utilized for data analysis. Model 59 results were reported in two different models, and the moderator results were obtained. The research found that the model measuring the impact of financial advice on the intention to recommend through financial capabilities was significant. Additionally, a strong regulatory role of social media was identified in the relationship between the intention to recommend through financial capabilities and financial advice. Furthermore, although the model measuring the impact of financial satisfaction on the intention to recommend through financial capabilities was significant, no moderation by social media was observed. Finally, the research concluded that receiving financial advice contributes to increasing financial satisfaction.</p> Nurgül BOZ , Kayhan AHMETOĞULLARI Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Reklamlarda Ünlü Kullanımının Satın Alma Niyetine Etkisinde Etnikmerkezciliğin Düzenleyici Rolü: Türk Hava Yolları Örneği (The Moderating Role of Ethnocentrism in The Effect of Celebrity Endorsement on Purchase Intention: The Case of Turkish Airlines) <p>Television, one of the traditional mass media, is an important tool for businesses that aim to reach the masses. One of the prominent applications in the effectiveness of television advertisements is the use of celebrities in advertisements. Consumer ethnocentrism is the tendency of an individual to see the society to which they belong as superior. In this study, it is aimed to determine the effect of celebrity endorsement strategy in advertisements on individuals' purchase intentions and the role of the concept of ethnocentrism in this relationship. The study was conducted on citizen of Republic of Türkiye over the age of 18, who have travelled at least once before with Turkish Airlines, by focusing on the celebrities in Turkish Airlines television commercials. The study is based on a mixed method, both quantitative and qualitative. Qualitative data were obtained through a focus group interview and a semi-structured in-depth interview and analyzed by coding method. Quantitative data, on the other hand, were obtained from 404 valid questionnaires and analyzed through descriptive statistical analyses, reliability analysis, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modeling.</p> Büşra HAFÇI YORULMAZ , Melek Ece ÖNCÜER Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Yemek Siparişi Uygulamaları Tüketim Değerleri, Tekrar Kullanma Niyeti ve EAAP Davranışı Arasındaki İlişki (The Relationship Between Food Ordering Applications Consumption Values, Reuse Intention and eWOM Behavior) <p>Food ordering applications offer many advantages such as easy ordering, faster delivery of food, convenience and time saving. Along with these advantages, the popularity of food ordering apps is evident from their worldwide growth potential. The aim of this research is to determine the relationships between the consumption values of food ordering applications and the intention to reuse and electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) behavior. Research data were collected through an online questionnaire. Analyzes were conducted with data collected from 281 consumers using food ordering applications. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the hypotheses developed within the scope of the study. According to the results obtained, the positive effects of price value, visibility and opportunity value on reuse intention were determined. It is thought that the findings obtained in the research will contribute to the development of effective advertising and communication strategies for food ordering applications.</p> Merve ÇETİN Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Bursa Yemek Kültürü Üzerine Nitel Bir Araştırma (A Qualitative Research on Bursa Food Culture) <p>Bursa cuisine is a deep-rooted cuisine formed by being influenced by the eating habits of different cultures and its own geographical richness. In this study, it was aimed to determine the food and beverage culture of Bursa, to reveal the traditional dishes belonging to Bursa culinary culture and to identify local special practices, and cultural heritage was tried to be recorded by conducting interviews. Case study design was used in the study. The population of the study consists of people living in Bursa and the sample of the study consists of 12 people who were born in Bursa and still living in Orhaneli, Keles, Harmancık, Kestel, Osmangazi districts. Snowball sampling, one of the purposive sampling methods, was used. Interview technique, one of the qualitative research methods, was used and data were collected through semi-structured interviews. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. According to the results, the participants agreed that families have a great duty to pass on the recipes to future generations. Under the name of Bursa local food, 12 soups, 60 main dishes, 24 pastries, desserts and beverages were found and 11 dishes and desserts whose recipes were found were included in the recipes section and added to the article. The responses to the questions about geographical indication knowledge and use indicate that there is a need for information on this issue. In conclusion, families, educational institutions and public institutions should work in cooperation to protect and preserve Bursa cuisine. Within the scope of these studies, academic studies on Bursa cuisine should be emphasized.</p> İlkay YILMAZ , Sena Nur DOĞAN Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Profesyonel Turist Rehberlerinin Pandemi Sürecinde İşini Kaybetme Kaygısının İş Performansına Etkisi (The Effect of Professional Tourist Guides' Anxiety of Losing Their Jobs During the Pandemic Process on Job Performance) <p>The pandemic's reservation cancellations have caused job loss and unemployment concerns among professional tourist guides, resulting in various issues such as health anxiety, diminished motivation, and decreased performance. This study aims to investigate the impact of job loss concerns stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic on the professional performance of tourist guides. To achieve this, a survey form was developed, incorporating reliable scales from relevant literature. Administered to 401 tourist guides through face-to-face interviews and Google Forms, the survey utilized statistical methods like Analysis of Variance (One-Way Anova), t-test, and regression analysis to test hypotheses. Findings indicated no significant differences in job performance evaluations based on marital status, COVID-19 status, or transmission concerns. However, variations were observed concerning gender, age, occupation, and work style. The study revealed a low-level positive correlation between job insecurity perception and job performance. Increasing perceptions of job insecurity due to the pandemic were associated with a parallel low-level increase in the impact on job performance.</p> Gökhan GÜMÜŞ , R. Pars ŞAHBAZ Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Yörük Mutfak Kültürünün Sürdürülebilirliği: Engeller, Çözüm Önerileri ve Gastronomi Turizmi Açısından Değerlendirilmesi (Sustainability of Yoruk Culinary Culture: Obstacles, Solution Proposals and Its Evaluation in Terms of Gastronomy Tourism) <p>In the study, it is aimed to identify the obstacles to the sustainability of the Yoruk culinary culture, to offer solutions for the sustainability of the culture and to transfer its to the next generations, and to reveal its importance for the regional gastronomy. The interview method, one of the qualitative research methods, was used and the data were collected with a semi-structured interview form. The population of the research consists of citizens of Yoruk origin living within the provincial borders of Mersin and Adana. Using the snowball sampling method, one of the purposeful sampling methods, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 20 people between 01 June 2022 and 05 July 2023. The obtained data were transferred to the MAXQDA program and subjected to content analysis. As a result of the research, the obstacles to the sustainability of the Yoruk culinary culture; They were grouped under three categories as barriers to economic, lifestyle and cultural transfer. Changes in living conditions, urbanization, and the lack of suitable environments to maintain culture were identified as the first three obstacles. The most important solution proposal to sustain the culture has been determined as the correct transfer of cultural elements to new generations. It is among the findings of the research that the nomadic culinary culture will be effective in the recognition of the region with its local tastes and that it will be an attraction for tourists who are interested in local products.</p> Oya YILDIRIM , Oya Berkay KARACA Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Food Propaganda in the World Wars: A Review on Food Posters <p>Propaganda is an activity that is conducted to influence the attitudes or behaviors of individuals by using communication tools. Throughout history, states have used different propaganda methods to influence their public and other states. Posters are one of the mass media tools used for propaganda purposes. States made propaganda during the World Wars, and often they used posters in this activity. Although there are studies focused on propaganda activities in World Wars, posters, and the importance of food policies, no study examining food-themed propaganda posters within the scope of the food policies. The purpose of the study is to examine the food-themed propaganda posters published during the two World Wars within the scope of the food policies. 43 food-themed posters were detected published during the World Wars for propaganda. The posters were analyzed through thematic analysis. As a result, it was determined that fourteen food policy themes were used in the posters of the world wars.</p> Pınar ŞENEL , Murat SEVİGEN Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Öncülleri ve Sonuçlarıyla Turist Rehberlerinin Duygusal Çelişkisi (The Emotional Dissonance of Tourist Guides with its Antecedents and Consequences) <p>Emotional dissonance is defined as the difference between the emotions actually felt by the employees and the emotions that the employers want to show. In this study, the concept of emotional dissonance was examined theoretically and a research was carried out on 206 professional tourist guides registered to Muğla Tourist Guides Chamber. In the study, it was tried to determine the effects of negative affect and intrinsic motivation characteristics of tourist guides on emotional dissonance and the effects of emotional dissonance on job performance, job satisfaction and intention to leave. As a result of the research, it was determined that negative affect had a positive and significant effect on emotional dissonance, while intrinsic motivation had no effect. In addition, the emotional dissonance experienced by tourist guides in their working life has a negative effect on their job performance and job satisfaction, while it has a positive and significant effect on their intention to leave.</p> Rıza ÖZTÜRK , Reyhan ARSLAN AYAZLAR Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Replacing of Water by Buffalo Milk or Buffalo Whey in Production of Traditional Afyonkarahisar Velense Noodle <p>The aim of this study is to produce velense noodle including buffalo milk, buffalo whey or water, evaluate their cooking and sensory properties and comparation of them. Velense noodle is a traditional product of Afyonkarahisar which is third gastronomy city of Turkey. Velense noodle is made from wheat flour, egg, salt and water. Water was replaced by buffalo milk and buffalo whey in the production of velense noodle. Because buffalo milk and buffalo whey have important components which give health benefits. So these new products will be more nutritional compared to traditional velense noodle. Cooking time, swelling volume, weight increase and cooking loss values of velense noodles were determined. The hedonic score of surface properties, chewiness properties, post chewining mouth feel properties, taste and overall acceptability were tested. The cooking time of all samples was 12 min. Velense noodle including buffalo milk or buffalo whey had better cooking properties means lower cooking loss and higher sensory scores than those of velense noodle including water. Velense noodle including buffalo milk had the best cooking and sensory properties. Swelling volume, weight increase and cooking loss of this velense noodle were 240%, 190% and 5.90%, while overall acceptability was 4.5 scores.</p> Seda YALÇIN , Erdal ÖZER , Tansu ÇELİK Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The Predictability of Capital Structure Theories in the Current Global Economy: An Analysis of the Debt Maturity Structure of Hotel Operations in The World’s Top 20 Tourism Destinations <p>Variables that affect capital structure decisions and their effect on firm value vary over time. They change by country, industry, time, firm tipe, etc. thats why the subject still being consider. In this context, we investigated the macroeconomic variables that affect the term structure of debt and capital structure decisions in lodging companies by employing the Generalized Moments Method over the period 2004-2017. It has been determined that the macroeconomic factors that affect the debt maturity and the capital structure of the lodging companies vary in the context of the development level. In addition, it can be said that capital structure decisions of accommodation enterprises in developed and developing countries act in line with the assumptions of Trade-off and Pecking Order theories on a variable basis.</p> Selda DALAK , Erdinç KARADENİZ Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Aşçıların İnovasyon Davranışı Düzeylerinin Füzyon Mutfağa Bakış Açılarına Etkisi (The Effect of Chefs' Innovation Behavior Levels on Their Perspectives on Fusion Cuisine) <p>Innovative culinary trends have arisen in response to evolving customer demands and preferences within the food and drink services of the tourism industry. The objective of this study is to investigate whether the level of innovation exhibited by chefs employed in the Turkish tourism sector impacts their perceptions of fusion cuisine practices. The study's sample population consists of chefs currently employed in tourism across Turkey. The online questionnaire, which was developed based on the literature, was administered to 455 chefs from June to December 2019. The snowball sampling technique was used and the obtained data was subject to descriptive and relational analyses. Following a factor analysis, it was found that chefs' levels of innovation behaviour consisted of three dimensions: 'openness to innovation', 'resistance to innovation' and 'curiosity', and that chefs' perspectives on fusion cuisine consisted of three dimensions: 'originality and uniqueness', 'professional knowledge advantage' and 'different flavours'. Following the correlation analysis, a "weak" positive association was found between the innovation behaviour levels of chefs and their perspectives on fusion cuisine. Furthermore, based on the regression analysis, it was observed that the enhancement in chefs' level of innovation behaviour had an effect on their perspective on fusion cuisine.</p> Uğur BOZBAYIR , Metin SÜRME , Atınç OLCAY Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Eko-Etiketleme Girişimi İklim Değişikliği ve Sürdürülebilir Turizm için Çözüm Olabilir Mi? Nitel Bir Araştırma (Can Eco-Labelıng Initıatives Be The Solution for Climate Change and Sustainable Tourism? A Qualitatıve Research) <p>Eco-labeling plays a critical role in combating climate change and promoting sustainable tourism. These labels encourage tourism businesses to measure and reduce their environmental impacts, thereby contributing to the fight against climate change and facilitating the widespread adoption of sustainable tourism practices. In this research, studies conducted on sustainability, eco-certification, and eco-labeling practices in the tourism sector in Turkey were examined to elucidate how effective and efficient eco-labeling can be implemented. Secondary data compiled from the literature were analyzed through document analysis using a qualitative research method. Academic search engine Scopus was used to collect secondary data, and the data were obtained in June 2023. The findings identified the areas of use of eco-labels in Turkey and worldwide. The themes that emerged from the analysis included tourist behavior, the aviation sector, greenwashing, sustainability, policies and strategies, carbon footprint, gastronomy and the food sector, marketing, responsible production and consumption, education and awareness, biodiversity, architecture and construction, management, smart tourism, and digitization. Furthermore, the research discusses how eco-labeling practices impact climate change. Additionally, examples of eco-labeling applications used in the Turkish tourism sector are listed. Since no source was found in the literature on this topic, the research holds unique value in this regard.</p> Selma MEYDAN UYGUR , Büşra KAYA , Sinan Baran BAYAR Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Müşteri İlişkileri Yönetiminde AHS ve VİKOR Yöntemleri İle Promosyon Müşterisi Belirlemeye Yönelik Model Önerisi: Butik Otel Örneği <p>The purpose of this study is to reveal how customer relationship management (CRM) in the accommodation business will make the customers rankings (promotion customers) that the business is satisfied and prefers to apply promotions. Since in-depth information is needed to identify promotion customers, it was deemed suitable to conduct a case study from qualitative research methods. The population of the study constitute of customers that staying in a boutique hotel in İzmir Çeşme in 2022. The reason for choosing a boutique hotel is that customer circulation is fast and customers cannot be followed in big hotels. As a result, it causes data loss in the determined customer evaluation criteria. Accordingly, guests staying at the boutique hotel business in 2022 were selected that fit in the customer evaluation criteria. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with business managers. The interviews were held face to face. In this study, AHP and Vikor methods, which are multiple decision-making methods, were used together to determine the ranking of promotion customers that provide business satisfaction. Customer ranking has been realized successfully and the necessary information has been obtained for the CRM strategies that will follow regarding customers.</p> V. Uğur TANDOĞAN , Erhan COŞKUN Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Kültürel Kimlik Bağlamında Eskişehir Yöresel Mutfağının İncelenmesi (Analyzing the Local Cuisine of Eskisehir in the Context of Cultural Identity) <p>The concept of local cuisine, which is being increasingly important nowadays, refers to the food and beverages produced by the local people of a region with cooking methods specific to the region. Local cuisine products, which are part of the immaterial cultural heritage, also reflect the cultural identity of the region. Destinations attract tourists by highlighting their local dishes and tourists willing to experience the culture of the region taste local flavors in this direction.&nbsp; Eskisehir has a rich local cuisine with the effect of its migrant population. The aim of this study is to determine the level of local cuisine products in food and beverage businesses in Eskisehir. The population of the study consists of first-class restaurants operating in Eskisehir. A qualitative research method was utilized in the study and semi-structured interviews were conducted with a total of 12 first-class restaurants in Eskisehir. According to the results of the research, it was found that 9 restaurants do not include local dishes at all, while 3 restaurants include local food and beverages in their menus at a limited level. In the conclusion section, recommendations were made to the sector and academia.</p> Gül Seray ŞİMŞEK , Zeynep ASLAN Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Konaklama İşletmelerinde Çevresel Tutku Algısının Küresel Sosyal Sorumluluğa Etkisi (The Effect of Perception of Environmental Passion on Global Social Responsibility in Accommodation Businesses) <p>Nowadays, the increase in environmental problems, especially due to human-induced activities, requires everyone to take precautions, and businesses should also help reduce these problems. Considering the tourism sector's interaction with the environment and the high damage it causes, sector employees are expected to have environmental passion and global social responsibility behavior. For the purposes of this study, the relationship levels between global social responsibility and environmental passion of managers of environmentally friendly 5-star accommodation businesses were investigated and it was determined that there was a positive and significant relationship between them. At the same time, the effect of environmental passion on global social responsibility was investigated and it was concluded that it had a significant and positive effect. In this study, which also investigated whether demographic characteristics reveal a significant difference in the perception of environmental passion, it was concluded that there was a significant difference in gender, education level and total working time in the current workplace variables, but there was no significant difference according to age, marital status and manager level.</p> Ayşegül GÜDÜL , Mehmet SAĞIR Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Turist Rehberliği Alanındaki Ön Lisans, Lisans ve Lisansüstü Programların Müfredatının Teknoloji ve Dijitalleşme Açısından İncelenmesi <p>Türkiye is the first and only country to offer higher education in the field of tour guiding at five different levels: associate, undergraduate, thesis, non-thesis and doctoral programs. The aim of this study is to examine the curricula of associate, undergraduate and graduate programs in the field of tour guiding with a holistic approach in terms of technology and digitalization. For this purpose, the current status of courses on technology and digitalization in the curricula of 36 tour guiding undergraduate programs, 23 associate degree programs, 10 non-thesis and 22 thesis master's programs and 3 doctoral programs in state universities in Türkiye was revealed. The courses collected under 5 themes were determined as Current Approaches in Tour Guiding, Social Media, Digital Literacy, E-Commerce and Technology Use and Digitalization in Tour Guiding. According to the findings of the study, although the proportion of courses on technology and digitalization varies according to the type of programs, it is quite limited in total courses.</p> Muhammed KAVAK , Oktay EMİR Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Sinop’ta Yöresel Yı̇yecek İçecek Hizmeti Sunan Restoranlara İlişkin Müşteri Şikayetlerinin Değerlendirilmesi: Tripadvisor Örneği (An Evaluation of Customer Complaints Regarding Local Food and Beverage Services in Sinop: Tripadvisor Example) <p>The aim of this study is to evaluate online complaints about local food and beverage establishments in Sinop, a tourism destination. In this context, it was tried to identify the complaint elements arising from the negative experiences of the guests who visited the local food and beverage establishments in Sinop. The sample of the study consists of a total of 1700 comments and 430 of these comments contain complaint elements. The complaints directed to local food and beverage establishments in Sinop are divided into six main categories: These are; complaints about personnel, complaints about price, complaints about service environment, complaints about service and complaints about menu. According to the results of the research, the most common complaint topics are complaints about food and beverage, price and personnel, respectively. As a result of the study, the reasons for complaints and complaint behaviors to local food and beverage establishments in Sinop were determined and suggestions were made to provide insight to practitioners in the sector.</p> Sibel ÖZDEMİR Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Sokak Lezzetlerine Yönelik Tutumun Kuşaklara Göre İncelenmesi: İstanbul Örneği (Investıgatıon of Attitude to Street Flavors According to Generations: The Case of Istanbul) <p>It is known that street flavors are preferred by all segments of the society for many reasons such as diversity, easy accessibility, reasonable price and speed. The aim of this research is to examine whether the attitudes towards street tastes differ in terms of X, Y and Z generations, to determine the preferred street tastes and to reveal what kind of street tastes are preferred by which generations. For this purpose, the data were obtained by using the convenience sampling technique through the prepared scale. Frequency analysis, factor analysis, t-test and ANOVA tests were applied to the obtained data. According to the factor analysis made; A total of six dimensions were determined as hygiene, pleasure, monetary value, service quality, convenience and socialization. According to the results of the research, while there is no significant difference according to the generations in the hygiene dimension, it has been determined that there are significant differences according to the generations in the dimensions of pleasure, monetary value, service quality, convenience and socialization. Accordingly, it can be said that the Z generation cares more about the service quality, monetary value and convenience than the X generation.</p> Salim İBİŞ, Dilek ÇOŞAN , Murat DOĞDUBAY Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Gastronomic Tourism of Türkiye: A Study on the Polish Market <p>Gastronomy is defined as a discipline that studies the preparation, presentation, and consumption of food and beverages within the framework of the relationship between food and culture. Gastronomy tourism focuses on the search for new flavors in new locations to improve one's physical and mental health. Türkiye hosts a wide variety of tourism types and opportunities with its historical texture, natural beauty, and rich cultural pool. Gastronomy tourism is one of these rich tourism opportunities. Türkiye hosts millions of tourists from various countries around the world every year. In 2022, approximately 2.2% of foreign visitors to Türkiye were Polish tourists. This study determined the preferences and opinions of Polish tourists regarding Türkiye's gastronomy tourism market. According to the data obtained, 101 male and 282 female participants indicated that Turkish cuisine and Turkish gastro-tourism have an essential place in the world, gastronomic elements are an important factor in their preference for Türkiye, they find Turkish cuisine predominantly delicious and affordable, döner kebab and Turkish coffee are the most well-known food and beverages from Turkish cuisine, and the participants are planning to revisit Türkiye for gastronomy tourism. As a result of the study, gastro-tourism-oriented recommendations were given to the sector for Turkish cuisine to take a more active role in the country's tourism and for the Polish market to be utilized more effectively.</p> Erdi EREN , Kemal ÇOŞKUN , Tamer TAŞÇI Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Perceived Overqualification: Evaluation for Gastronomy Students <p>One of the important elements for the food and beverage industry to carry out its activities successfully is the performance of the employees. Since it is a labor-intensive industry, employees become even more important. One of the obstacles to the superior performance of the employees is the perception of overqualification. In this study, it is aimed to produce solutions to manage the perception of overqualification, which may arise by examining the perceived overqualification levels of gastronomy students. A quantitative method was followed within the scope of the research. The data obtained through the questionnaire form (311 respondents) were analyzed by applying descriptive statistics and difference analysis. The findings of the study show that there is a differentiation from the perception of overqualification according to some demographic characteristics. These findings, which emerged within the scope of the study, were interpreted and suggestions were presented.</p> Gökhan ONAT , Yusuf KARAKUŞ Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Türkiye’de Turistik Yiyecek İçecek Harcamaları ile Reel Efektif Döviz Kuru Arasındaki Nedensellik İlişkisi (The Causality Relationship between Touristic Food and Beverage Expenditures and Real Effective Exchange Rate in Türkiye) <p>Foreign tourism revenues in Türkiye are described by the Turkish Statistical Institute under many sub-headings. One of these is food and beverage expenditures. Since food and beverage expenditures fulfill a physiological need, they have an important share in total income. Just as there are factors affecting tourism revenues, there are also factors affecting food and beverage expenditures. One of these factors is considered to be the exchange rate. In this context, the aim of this study is to explain the relationship between the real effective exchange rate and tourist food and beverage expenditures within the framework of an econometric model. The data set of the study is composed of 57 observations covering the data between the first quarter of 2009 and the first quarter of 2023. Kapetanios and Zivot-Andrews unit root tests that allow structural breaks are used to determine the degree of integration of the series. As a result of the unit root test, the Granger causality model developed by Toda-Yamamoto was established due to the different degrees of integration of the variables included in the analysis. In addition, the first break date (second quarter of 2020), which was determined after the unit root tests of the food and beverage expenditures variable, was included in the model as a dummy variable. The findings of the study suggest that there is a bidirectional causality relationship between the real effective exchange rate and touristic food and beverage expenditures. According to this result, the real effective exchange rate in Türkiye can affect tourist food and beverage expenditures. In addition, touristic food and beverage expenditures can also affect the real effective exchange rate.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Kurban ÜNLÜÖNEN , Sadık GÜNDÜZ Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Glamping İşletmelerinde Sınıflandırma Sistemlerinin İncelenmesi ve Türkiye için Öneriler (Examination of Classification Systems in Glamping Establishments and Recommendations for Turkey) <p>Glamping tourism, which is seen as the new trend of recent years and offers both a modern and pastoral holiday experience by offering luxury and comfort in nature, has started to become widespread and popular all over the world and in Turkey. In Turkey, there is no quality standard and classification system for glamping businesses that offer a wide range of services, from businesses that provide basic services to businesses that offer ultra-luxury services, and therefore have a wide price range. In this study, it is aimed to present suggestions regarding the creation of a quality assurance standard and a classification system specific to glamping establishments in Turkey. For this purpose, the quality assurance standards and classification systems created by the glamping associations/unions in the United Kingdom regarding glamping were examined in depth, a process table was created for Turkey and suggestions were presented.</p> Yasemin CEYLAN , Gülseren ÖZALTAŞ SERÇEK Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 MESEM’e Kayıtlı Turizm Öğrencilerinin İş Yükü ile Tükenmişlik Düzeyi Arasındaki İlişkide İş-Serbest Zaman ve İş-Okul Çatışmasının Aracılık Rolü ve Sektöre Yönelik Tutum <p>This study aims to investigate the workload of Vocational Education Center (MESEM) students working in the tourism sector, the work-school and work-leisure conflicts they experience, the prevalence of burnout and their intentions to stay in the tourism sector. The population of the research consists of students registered to MESEM working in the tourism sector in Antalya, one of the main touristic destinations in Türkiye. Survey technique was used for research data. A total of 317 students who participated in the research voluntarily constituted the sample group. In the analysis of the data, descriptive analysis was first conducted to determine the socio-demographic characteristics of the participants. Then, partial least squares SEM (PLS-SEM) analyzes were performed using the SmartPLS 4th package program to test the measurement model and hypotheses. The findings clearly reveal the serious workload that MESEM students experience while actively participating in the tourism sector. This workload significantly disrupts non-work time and intensifies work-school-leisure conflicts. In addition, the analysis results confirmed that both work-leisure conflict and work-school conflict have a mediating role in the relationship between workload and burnout. Accordingly, the job demands of tourism businesses where MESEM students work four days a week put serious pressure on students, disrupt the balance between work, entertainment and education, and ultimately lead to burnout.</p> Sait DURĞUN , Ahmet TAYFUN , Cemal Ersin SİLİK Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The Effect of Popular Culture on Conspicuous Food Consumption in Istanbul <p>Eating and drinking culture has begun to differentiate with the changing perception of society, living conditions and technological advances. This differentiation has changed people's preferences, habits and food consumption with popular culture. This change has also affected the order of priority in determining the needs of people and has revealed a situation in which attitudes and behaviors are shaped with a hedonistic approach. The effect of popular culture on food consumption is the aim of this study. In addition, investigating the conspicuous consumption tendency of people in food consumption with the effect of popular culture is another aim of the study.</p> Uğur BİLEN , Demet GENCELİ Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Gastronomi Rotaları ve Önemi: Afyonkarahisar Örneği (Gastronomic Routes and Their Significance: The Example of Afyonkarahisar) <p>Gastronomy routes are an important resource for the development of gastronomic tourism in a destination. In this context, the purpose of the research is to determine gastronomy routes in Afyonkarahisar. The study utilized a semi-structured interview technique, involving 18 representatives from public institutions, 288 village headmen, and 51 locals. Initially, meetings were held with local government officials to identify food establishments and gastronomic values in the region. In the second stage, village headmen and locals were interviewed, focusing on the famous food product of each town or village. Based on the collected data, 151 settlements were included in the scope of the research as part of the gastronomy route. The data, transferred to a computer environment, was digitized and input into the ArcGIS program used in geographic information systems. Eight production facility routes and thirteen gastronomy product routes were identified based on the obtained data. The conclusion drawn is that Afyonkarahisar districts and villages have rich gastronomic values waiting to be discovered.</p> Hülya MUTLU , Mustafa SANDIKCI Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Exploring Iconic Foods of Hatay Cuisine as a Cultural Identity <p>Since food is important to define and embody the gastronomic characteristics of a place, it is considered as part of the cultural capital that represents the expression of a country, society and history. Therefore, the symbolic foods of the region form the basis of the culinary culture. Iconic foods culturally encompass historical depth, skills, knowledge, eating habits, and other traditions. Although it varies from culture to culture, foods that reflect the values of the countries or regions are seen as a symbol of cultural identity. In this context the main purpose of the current research is to determine what is the iconic foods in Hatay cuisine, where the variety of food is very high. For this purpose study is an exploratory research. The data related to the research were collected between April 30 - May 15 2023 by means of a questionnaire. In total, 412 questionnaires were obtained from public of Hatay. The results of the this study shows the potential of 55 the iconic dishes in Hatay cuisine. Origins of these foods and their cultural values shows that the of iconic dishes in Hatay cuisine is a symbol of cultural identity.</p> Nurhayat İFLAZOĞLU , Mustafa AKSOY Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Yeni Bir Araştırma Alanı Olarak Dijital Oyunlarda Gastronomi (Gastronomy in Digital Games as a New Research Area) <p>Literatürde gastronomi konulu dijital oyunları inceleyen bir çalışmaya rastlanamaması sebebiyle bu araştırma gastronomi konulu oyunları araştırmayı amaçlamıştır. Bu bağlamda nitel araştırma yöntemi benimsenmiş olup Steam platformunda “aşçılık” etiketiyle satışa sunulmuş olan 428 bilgisayar oyunu arasında “En İyiler” ve “En Çok Satanlar” listelerinin ilk 25 sırasında yer alan oyunlar araştırmanın örneklemini oluşturmaktadır. Oyunların çoğunlukla işletme yönetimi tarzında simülasyonlar olduğu ve müşteriler tarafından beğenildiği görülmüştür. Ayrıca iki listenin kesişim kümesinde yer alan oyunlar belirlenmiş ve satışa sunulduğu etiketler kelime bulutu aracılığıyla analiz edilmiştir. Son olarak kesişim kümesinde yer alan oyunların iki listede yer aldığı sıranın ortalaması hesaplanarak yeni bir sıralama oluşturulmuş ve yeni sıralamada ilk üçte bulunan oyunlar detaylı bir şekilde incelenmiştir. Araştırmanın bir kazanımı olarak gastronomi ile dijital oyunlar arasındaki ilişkinin kurulmasına öncülük ederek yeni araştırmalar için önerilerde bulunulmuştur.</p> Ünal Gönen ISLAKOĞLU , Mehmet ÖZÇETİN Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Akıllı Turizmin ChatGPT Tarafından Değerlendirilmesi (Evaluation of Smart Tourism by ChatGPT) <p>The aim of the research is to analyze the responses of the ChatGPT application, an artificial intelligence chatbot, regarding smart tourism. ChatGPT is a type of chatbot developed by OpenAI that uses the Generative Pre-trained Transformer (GPT) language model to understand natural language inputs and provide responses. In this context, ChatGPT, an AI-powered chatbot, was asked five open-ended questions to evaluate smart tourism. Following the general assessment by ChatGPT, several themes emerged, including experience, efficiency, management, and sustainability. Regarding tourism attractions, it was identified that technology infrastructure, data analytics, artificial intelligence, personalization and customer experience, mobile applications and interactive tools, sustainability and environmental awareness, as well as security and data privacy, are essential elements to be present. When considering smart tourism technologies from the perspective of tourists, it was determined that they provide advantages such as convenience, enriched experiences, utilization of new technologies, and quick access to information. However, it is necessary to address challenges related to decreased human interaction, concerns about data security, and resolving dependency on technology. Finally, smart tourism technologies offer opportunities for increased efficiency, providing decision support services, facilitating business processes, enhancing customer service, enabling data analysis and improvement, fostering innovation, and supporting skill development from the perspective of employees and managers.</p> Ahmet ERDEM Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Swot Analysis of Kuşadası's Gastronomy Tourism From Restaurant Managers' Perspectives <p>Gastronomy tourism is a type of tourism that covers the travel and accommodation of tourists to experience different culinary cultures, eating and drinking habits, food and beverage types. It is very important in terms of promoting, marketing, and creating the image of a destination. The development of gastronomy tourism in a region can enable the region to get more share from tourism revenues by attracting more tourists to that region. In this context, the aim of this research is to determine the potential of Kuşadası in gastronomy tourism with SWOT analysis and to make inferences about the future of gastronomy tourism in the region. The research adopts a qualitative approach to identify and analyse the strengths and weaknesses, future opportunities, and possible threats/obstacles of Kuşadası gastronomy tourism, as well as suggestions and solutions to improve Kuşadası's gastronomy tourism potential. As a result of the interviews with the owners/managers of the restaurants operating in Kuşadası, the main strengths are the proximity to many historical sites and national parks including the surrounding districts, the presence of tangible and intangible cultural heritage elements, the adequacy of accommodation establishments and facilities, and being preferred by foreign tourists. Under the heading of distance from localism, the statements that there are no local restaurants in the district, local dishes are not included in restaurant menus, local dishes are not known or ignored by restaurant operators, and therefore the intensity of ready-made food consumption has shown the weaknesses of the district in terms of gastronomy tourism. However, as threats/obstacles, it was observed that the discomfort arising from the existence of similar types of restaurants offering similar menus was mentioned. In addition, preparing menus and determining the dishes according to the incoming tourists is another important issue. The fact that gastronomy tourism is not known or ignored by tourism investors and the public is one of the biggest obstacles to the development of the district in this sense. In addition, unlike previous studies, the suggestions of the participants are also included.</p> Ahu SEZGİN , Büşra HAFÇI YORULMAZ , Emrah Köksal SEZGİN Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Türkiye’de Gıda İsrafını Önleme Çalışmaları: Gıda Dostu Turuncu Bayrak Örneği (Studies to Prevent Food Waste in Turkey: The Sample of the Food-Friendly Orange Flag) <p>Food Friendly Orange Flag is one of the platforms carrying out food waste prevention activities in Turkey. In this study, it is aimed to discuss the activities carried out to prevent food waste in Turkey and to detail the activities of the Food Friendly Orange Flag platform as an example of good practice. Document analysis technique, one of the qualitative research methods, was used in the study. In collecting the data, the promotional guide, activity guide, visibility guide, auditing criteria and Orange Flag Implementation Procedures and Principles, which represent the institutional structure of the platform, were used. In addition, a literature review was conducted on the website and social media accounts of the Food Friendly Orange Flag platform. Descriptive analysis method was used to analyze the data. In line with the findings obtained in the study, it is thought that the Food Friendly Orange Flag is an important practice in terms of reducing costs in food waste, raising awareness among children and adults against waste, and contributing to the food-friendly / environmentally friendly prestige of businesses.</p> Aybuke CEYHUN SEZGİN , Ayşenur ATEŞ Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Küreselleşme ve Mutfak: Uluslararası Mutfaklar Üzerine Bibliyometrik Bir İnceleme (Globalization and Cuisine: A Bibliometric Study on International Cuisines) <p>This study aims to examine the studies on international cuisines and to determine the situation. Globalization has increased intercultural interaction with the development of communication and transportation technologies. This process has deeply affected culinary culture, as in many areas. Culinary culture is an area where people interact with each other and cultural exchange takes place. International cuisines build bridges between cultures. The fact that world cuisines have played such important roles has created a matter of curiosity to what extent this importance resonates in academic writing, and within the scope of the purpose of the research, a bibliometric analysis was made through the VOSvieewer program in the light of the data obtained from the Web of Science database. In this study, a total of 624 articles published between 1993 and 2022 were examined. The names that produce the most works on international cuisine are Perez-Llorens, Jose Lucas, Charles Spence and Tomas Lopez-Guzman. When the distribution by year is examined, the most articles were 2021 (87 articles), 2020 (75 articles) and 2022 (74 articles), respectively. The most frequently used keywords related to international cuisines were "haute cuisine" with 8 repetitions, "gastronomy" with 6 repetitions and "cuisine" with 4 repetitions.</p> Esra ÖZATA ŞAHİN Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Gastronomik Bir Miras Trakya Kuskusu; Çatalca Örneği (Thracian Couscous as Gastronomic Heritage; The Case of Çatalca) <p>Couscous, a food of Turkish cuisine made using traditional methods, distinguishes itself through unique tools, communal preparation, and high nutritional value. Couscous, whose traditional production continues especially in the regions where the Balkan immigrant population lives in the Thrace region, is in danger of being lost and forgotten due to the aging of the population and the loss of interest of the young population.&nbsp; Interviews conducted in Istanbul's Çatalca district, the gateway to Thrace, aimed to assess the current situation of couscous production. In this study, in which the criterion sampling method, one of the purposeful sampling methods, was used, the headmen of 35 rural neighborhoods in Çatalca district were interviewed and it was learned that couscous production no longer continues in 9 neighborhoods. Semi-structured interviews with 18 elders from couscous-making areas unveiled unrecorded steaming and drying techniques. Elders struggle with couscous-making, while younger generations prefer store-bought options. As a result, fewer families now craft couscous compared to the past.</p> Kemal AKSU , Fulya SARPER Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Coğrafi İşaret ile Tescilli Yöresel Mutfak Ürünlerinin Turistlerin Destinasyon Seçimine Etkisi: Güneydoğu Anadolu Bölgesi Örneği <p>Socio-economic and technological developments in the world have changed the consumption habits of tourists. With this change, local culinary products registered with geographical indication have become important for tourists. The aim of the research is to determine whether visitors to the Southeastern Anatolia Region know about geographically indicated local cuisine products and to determine whether geographically indicated local cuisine products are effective in tourists' destination selection. For this purpose, data was collected and analyzed using a survey form from 830 domestic tourists who visited the Southeastern Anatolia Region in 2019. In the study, it was determined that the awareness level of geographically indicated local cuisine products of the provinces in the Southeastern Anatolia Region is low, and each province stands out with a few geographically indicated local cuisine products. It has been concluded that the attitudes of domestic tourists coming to the Southeastern Anatolia Region towards local culinary products registered with provincial geographical indications affect their destination choice by 67.7%.</p> Sultan BELLİ , Ebru GÜNEREN Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 A Review to Overrecreation on Effects and Future Perspectives <p>Overrecreation is emerging as a new concept that ecological environment and sustainable tourism activities have faced in recent years. There are some negativities such as uncontrolled growth, density and unplannedness brought about by this development. Recreational activities carried out without considering these problems can lead to discussions at both the national and international levels after a certain period of time. The problems that can be caused by the intense interest in recreational activities in destinations have brought up the issue of "overrecreation", which is becoming increasingly important in the literature. This research presents the foreseen future perspectives on the subject by addressing the basis, effects and consequences of overrecreation. With this research, it is aimed to contribute to overrecreation, which is limited in the related literature. As a result of the research, it is understood that scientific studies on the subject are insufficient and authorized institutions do not act sensitively. While it is understood that the subject is expressed in a very limited way in the relevant literature, it is observed that the negative effects are not taken into account. In the field of application, it is understood that the large number of participants and possible harm to the environment are ignored due to commercial concerns.In the light of the results obtained, some suggestions are presented and attention is drawn to the issue of overrecreation.</p> Ebru BARAKAZI Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Konaklama Sektöründe Gold LEED Uygulamaları: Renaissance İstanbul Polat Bosphorus Hotel Örneği (Gold LEED Applications in Hospitality Industry: Renaissance Istanbul Bosphorus Hotel Sample) <p>This study was carried out with the aim of revealing the sustainability practices of Renaissance Istanbul Polat Bosphorus hotel, which is the first international hotel chain to have Gold LEED certificate in Turkey, and the advantages of having this certificate brings to the guests and the hotel. In this context, interviews were conducted with 8 people in total, including the general manager and department managers of Renaissance Bosphorus Istanbul Hotel, by choosing the case study, one of the qualitative research designs. The data obtained from the interviews were subjected to thematic analysis by using the Maxquda 2022 qualitative data analysis program. Due to the results of the research, it has been determined that Renaissance Bosphorus Istanbul Hotel attaches importance to water saving, electricity saving, recycling practices and the use of environment friendly products within the scope of sustainability practices. In addition, it has been determined that the hotel has applied for this certificate in order to reduce costs, protect the environment and save energy. Finally, it has been seen that the Gold LEED certificate offers various advantages to both the guests and the hotel. It has been determined that this certificate contributes to the protection of the health of the guests and to receiving quality service, while the hotel contributes to the increase in income, green image, competitive advantage and brand value.</p> Pelin TUNA ARSLAN , Hakan ARSLAN , Eda HAZARHUN Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Türkiye’deki Bireylerin Gıda Bilincine İlişkin Bir Araştırma: Çernobil Örneği (A Study on Food Awareness of Individuals in Turkey: The Case of Chernobyl) <p>Purpose of the research; The aim is to determine the awareness of individuals regarding food with the example of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident. For this purpose, the interview technique, which is included in the qualitative research method, was used. Face-to-face interviews were held with individuals living in Ordu, Rize and Artvin provinces in the Eastern Black Sea Region. A total of 25 participants (17 women and 8 men) were reached: nine living in Ordu, six living in Rize and 10 living in Artvin. A semi-structured interview form was used as a data collection tool. The interview form included nine open-ended questions. The data obtained was analyzed using the descriptive analysis technique. As a result of the research, it was determined that the participants did not care about the effects of food products from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident. This situation is supported by the fact that although the participants knew that the products were affected by radiation after the accident, they did not conduct research on the subject, did not take precautions, and continued to produce and consume the products. Their fatalistic perspective towards increasing health problems is another indicator. It is a remarkable result that after a major accident such as the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, individuals do not act with food awareness and do not try to raise awareness even 37 years after the accident. Seminars and courses can be organized to increase food awareness of the society.</p> Elif KAYMAZ , Şevki ULEMA Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Kapadokya Bölgesindeki Şeflerin Füzyon Mutfak Bilgi Düzeyleri ve Kullanım Sıklıkları Üzerine Bir Araştırma (A Study on Knowledge Level and Usage Frequency of Fusion Cuisine by Chefs in Cappadocia Region) <p>Fusion cuisine is an approach that aims to create new and unique flavors by combining the culinary traditions of different cultures. Factors such as migration, globalization and cultural interaction are the origins of fusion cuisine. This approach brings innovation to cuisine by combining traditional recipes and cooking techniques. The popularity of fusion cuisine has increased with people's desire to discover new and different flavors. Restaurants offer menus inspired by different cultures, using the creativity of chefs. The development of fusion cuisine has increased the diversification and commercial value of food and beverage production with the advancement of gastronomy science. In this study, it was aimed to determine the level of fusion cuisine knowledge of chefs working in the Cappadocia region and the frequency of using this practice in their kitchens. For this purpose, 18 chefs working in the Cappadocia region were interviewed using the interview technique, one of the qualitative research methods. Cappadocia region was chosen as the research region because it is an important touristic region and there are many restaurants and hotels in the region. At the same time, since the number of chefs in this region is quite high, it was thought that they could make important contributions to the research. As a result of the study, it was determined that the chefs in the Cappadocia region are familiar with the concept of fusion cuisine, but they do not include fusion cuisine products in their menus sufficiently.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Gülseli EVLİYAOĞLU , Emrah KESKİN Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Kartalkaya Kayak Merkezi’ndeki Atıl Kapasitenin Değerlendirilmesi (Evaluation of the Idle Capacity in Kartalkaya Ski Center) <p>Climate change, negatively affects winter tourism centers and does not comply with the expected occupancy rates in ski climate conditions. Therefore, the existing capacities in the ski resorts remain idle. In this context, the main purpose of the study is to identify the activities that businesses in Bolu Kartalkaya Ski Center carry out or want to carry out in order to extend the season and utilize their idle capacities, and to reveal the thoughts of the operators in the region on this issue. For this purpose, the interview technique was used in the study and face-to-face interviews were held with the managers of the businesses operating in the ski resort in the region. Accordingly, it has been determined that businesses in Kartalkaya have been negatively affected by climate change and their occupancy rates have decreased in recent years. It has been stated that businesses in the region can turn to alternative activities such as mountain tourism, caravan tourism, plateau tourism, sports tourism, camping, trekking and off road in order to continue their activities throughout the year.</p> Hakan UZUNÇAKMAK , Aliye ÇİLAN AKIN Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Turizm Çalışmalarındaki Gıda Güvenliği Konusu Üzerine Bir İnceleme: ULAKBİM Tr-Dizin Örneği (A Review on Food Safety in Tourism Studies: The Case of ULAKBIM Tr-Index) <p>Food safety is an important element in nutrition that needs to be considered at every stage of the food process, from production to consumption. It also promotes sustainable development by supporting national economies, trade and tourism. Food safety in tourism comes to the forefront especially in terms of the health and safety of the food served in food and beverage establishments. The aim of this study is to reveal the research on food safety in tourism with bibliometric analysis method. In this context, the journals in the ULAKBIM TR-DISIN database were scanned between April 20-29, 2023 and 37 articles were examined. The results of the study showed that the most publications on food safety in tourism were made in 2021, in the "Journal of Tourism and Gastronomy Studies", with two authors, in Turkish text language and at Ankara Hacı Bayram Veli University. It was determined that the most frequently repeated words in the keywords of the studies were "food safety", "hygiene", "food and beverage businesses" and "information". It was observed that the studies focused on themes such as food safety, food safety knowledge level, food safety attitude/behavior. This study is expected to guide those who will conduct research on food safety in tourism in the future.</p> Ahmet Can GÖKSUN , Nihan AKDEMİR Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Orman Yangınlarının Arıcılığa ve Arı Turizminin Yapılabilirliğine Etkisi: Marmaris Örneği (The Effect of Forest Fires on Feasibility of Beekeeping and Api Tourism: The Case of Marmaris) <p>Forest fires, emerging as one of the destructive consequences of climate and climate change, directly impact apiculture and bee tourism, which are agricultural activities closely related to forests. The purpose of this research is to reveal the effects of the wildfire disaster in the Marmaris district on apiculture activities and the sustainability of bee tourism. The study adopts a qualitative research method, and face-to-face interviews using a semi-structured interview technique were conducted with local beekeepers. The research sample consisted of 11 local beekeepers engaged in apiculture activities in the village of Osmaniye in the Marmaris district, selected using the snowball sampling method. As a result of the study, participants stated that the production potential of pine honey would decrease, and they expressed their intention to engage in apiculture activities in areas with richer vegetation to replace the lost beekeeping areas, focusing on apiculture by-products. It was suggested that the recovery of forest assets after the fire could take 30-40 years. Additionally, participants emphasized that bee tourism contributes to the local economy, supporting the livelihoods of the people, and they indicated that this type of tourism could still be successfully implemented in the district.</p> Büşra UZUN , Salim AKÇAY , Emine YILMAZ Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Popüler Kıyı Destinasyonlarında Yer Alan Sakin Şehirlerin Tanıtım Filmlerinin Analizi (Analysis of Promotional Movies of Slow Cities Located in Popular Coastal Destinations) <p>The slow city movement, which emerged against the fast and consumption-based city understanding, aimed to live at a pace that will enjoy life, to protect the natural, and to prevent uniformisation. In addition, the slow city has become a philosophy that aims to protect traditions and customs, localism and crafts. Rapid developments in the field of information and technology have made promotional activities increasingly important. In this context, various promotional films have been prepared by tourism directorates, local administrations and non-governmental organisations to support promotional activities. In this study, which was conducted using content analysis technique, one of the qualitative research methods, the promotional videos of Seferihisar, Foça, Köyceğiz, Finike and Gökçeada districts, which are located in the Aegean and Mediterranean coastal regions of Turkey and entitled to receive the title of Cittaslow, were analysed. In the study, it is aimed to determine whether there are visual or auditory images that meet the criteria of slow cities in the promotional films of these districts. According to the research findings, Seferihisar promotional film was the promotional film with the highest number of images. As a result of the research, it was observed that the promotional films did not include enough visual or auditory images that correspond to the criteria of a slow city.</p> Bahadır İnanç ÖZKAN , Sedat ŞAHİN , Ahmet EDİS Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Seyahat Acentası Temsilcilerinin Çalışma Sürecinde Yaşadıkları Sorunların İncelenmesi: Kuşadası Örneği (Investigation of the Problems Experienced by Travel Agency Representatives in the Working Process: The Case of Kusadasi) <p>The purpose of this research is to determine the working problems of travel agency representatives. It is seen that there are not enough studies in the literature examining the work of the representatives. Existing research focuses more on the work of professional tourist guides and the work of representatives is ignored. In this context, the research is exploratory in nature. In the research, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 travel agency representatives working in domestic and foreign tourism markets. Interview data were supported by short notes taken in the field of research. The obtained data were analyzed by content analysis technique. The problems faced by the representatives during the working process were investigated over the three areas they provide service (hotel-airport transfers and daily tours). Thus, the problems experienced by the representatives due to the travel agency they work for, the hotels they are responsible for during the work process, and their work stakeholders were investigated in detail. For example, it has been identified as one of the important problems that flexible working hours, which are a result of the flexible production style in the Post-Fordist period, make representatives dependent on work for their entire lives. The working problems experienced by the representatives during the COVID-19 outbreak are also investigated within the scope of this research. The research results clearly demonstrated that the working conditions of representatives need to be improved. The research ended with suggestions for travel agency managers and future research.</p> Berkant KIYKAÇ , Ülker ÇOLAKOĞLU Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Turistlerin Restoranlara Yönelik Çevrimiçi Yorumlarının İçerik Analiziyle İncelenmesi: Tokat İli Örneği (Investigation of Tourists' Online Comments Towards Restaurants with Content Analysis: The Case of Tokat Province) <p>The primary objective of this study is to investigate the online tourist experiences of restaurants operating Tokat, a traditional Turkish ingredient. For this purpose, content analysis was used as a method in the research. Online comments about restaurants operating in Tokat province on the TripAdvisor platform were examined within the scope of the research. Accordingly, the five restaurants with the highest number of tourist comments and ratings were included in the research. The word cloud technique was used to analyze the data obtained from the comments. Word clouds were created in two categories, positive and negative, from tourist comments about Tokat restaurants. According to the findings of the research, the scores of the restaurants evaluated were above average. In addition, it has been determined that the positive comments and opinions made by tourists about Tokat restaurants are greater than the negative ones. In the word cloud created from positive comments, the most prominent words were "beautiful, Tokat Kebab, quality, place, and I recommend". It was determined that the prominent words in the negative word cloud were "Tokat Kebab, bad, arrived late, I do not recommend, expensive".</p> Cem Taner HİÇYAKMAZER , Hakan KENDİR , Emin ARSLAN Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Gastronomi Turizmi Kapsamında Rize’deki Restoranlara Yapılan Çevrim İçi Yorumların İncelenmesi (Examination of Online Comments Made on Restaurants in Rize within the Scope of Gastronomy Tourism) <p>The objective of this study is to analyse user comments on restaurants selected based on various criteria in Rize province, within the scope of gastronomy tourism. The study aims to identify positive and negative aspects of these businesses based on the collected data. Based on the findings, recommendations will be made to improve the businesses and meet customer expectations. The data was collected from the TripAdvisor website and analysed using the MAXQDA programme. The analysis revealed that positive visitor comments about restaurants in Rize focused on local flavours, scenery, and hospitality, while negative comments highlighted issues with location, unprofessional service, and price. Suggestions have been made for operators and policymakers based on these findings.</p> Can AKTUNA Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Türk Gastronomisi Adına Yeni Bir Restoran Derecelendirme Sistemi: Gault & Millau Rehberi (A New Restaurant Rating System on Behalf of Turkish Gastronomy: Gault & Millau Guide) <p>Many restaurant rating systems around the world are followed carefully by gastronomy enthusiasts, gourmets, travellers and gastronomy industry professionals. It has become extremely important to be included in these guides, which can also be called the “Nobel of Food”, and to be deemed worthy of an award. In 2024, Gault &amp; Millau announced that it would include Turkey in its scope. This study, prepared in line with all this development, is a conceptual study on Gault &amp; Millau Guide, a new restaurant rating system for Turkish gastronomy. The data obtained about Gault &amp; Millau were presented by comparing them with other popular guides, and thus, the superior and developmental aspects of the guides compared to each other were tried to be revealed. As a result of the study, it has been predicted that Turkish gastronomy will adapt to the changing trends around the world with Turkey's inclusion in the Gault &amp; Millau Guide, the sensitivity to issues such as sustainability and healthy nutrition will increase, and the quality of food and service will increase thanks to the possible competition to be experienced among Turkish restaurants that want to be included in the guide.</p> Öznur CUMHUR , Aysu ALTAŞ Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 A Socio-Cultural Research on The People of Yağlıdere Living in The Usa within The Scope of Diaspora Tourism <p>While many tourists become attached to a destination after repeated visits, immigrant tourists feel connected to the people, culture, and heritage of the destination prior to their visit. In this context, this study examines the visits of immigrants from Yaglidere who visit their ancestral lands as tourists in a sociological dimension from the United States of America. Exploratory research approach and phenomenology model were adopted as the research method in the study. In this study, in which qualitative research design was used, in-depth semi-structured interview technique was used as data collection technique. The research data was determined with maximum diversity using purposive sampling. The data obtained were coded, categorized and interpreted by content analysis used in qualitative data analysis. In the study, it was concluded that the main motivation for the participants to visit Turkey was to fulfill family and homesickness. It was determined that the participants visited Turkey because of its historical background, cultural diversity, food and natural beauties. Based on the results obtained in the study, it is thought that the tourism sector can develop marketing strategies for the development of diaspora tourism by considering the demands of the participants, thus providing more added value to the national economy and increasing the satisfaction rate of diaspora tourists.</p> Esra Nur AYAZ , Bayram KANCA Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Akıllı Otel: Uygulamalar ve Örnekler (Smart Hotel: Applications and Examples) <p>A smart hotel is an efficient and interactive accommodation facility that uses advanced technologies such as automation technologies and artificial intelligence to personalize and enhance the guest experience. This study aims to reveal examples of smart hotels and their applications in hotels. It is important to identify smart hotel applications and examples to give an idea of how these applications can be used in the hospitality industry, what different application methods can be used, and what the benefits are. The data on the smart hotel examples studied in the research were obtained from secondary sources. A systematic literature review method was used in the data collection process of the research. The selection of hotel examples was based on the use of at least one of the smart technology types.&nbsp; To ensure sample diversity, hotels using the same technology in different ways or using different technologies were examined. The research identified 57 examples of smart hotels.</p> Evrim ÇELTEK Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Aşçılık Öğrencilerinin Eğitim Süreçleri ve Kariyer Hedeflerine Yönelik Bir Değerlendirme (An Evaluation of Culinary Students' Educational Processes and Career Goals) <p>In this research conducted on 15 female students receiving culinary education, data was collected using a semi-structured interview form in order to understand the educational processes and career goals of culinary students in more detail. According to the research results, it is seen that the majority of students aim to work in a professional business environment after completing their culinary education. However, problems such as gender inequality and wage inequality in this sector are thought to increase insecurity in the sector. These factors shape students' negative views about the sector, causing lack of motivation and job dissatisfaction. This research has shown that harsh working conditions have negative effects on quality of life and job satisfaction. This situation leads to increased concerns and despair about the sector while students determine their career goals. The existence of negative practices, especially nepotism (nepotism), causes students to distrust the sector and reduce their desire to pursue a career in the sector. This research constitutes an important resource for understanding the experiences and opinions of students in the culinary industry.</p> Fatma KOÇ , Gülsevdi ÖZTÜRK Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Ekonomik Krizler ve Pandeminin Türk Turizm Sektörüne Etkilerinin İncelenmesi (Investigation of The Effects of Economic Crises and Pandemic on Turkish Tourism Sector) <p>Also referred to as the "smokeless industry," the tourism sector is one of the critical sectors for Turkey when considering aspects such as reducing structural-chronic balance of payments deficits, earning foreign exchange income, and creating employment opportunities. This study focuses on the critical importance of the tourism sector for economic development and examines the macroeconomic effects of the economic crises experienced in the Turkish tourism sector and the 2020 pandemic. The impacts of the 1994, 2001, 2008 financial crises, and the 2020 pandemic process on the industry have been approached both conceptually and from a comparative perspective. The structures of the crises, their causes, processes, and effects on the Turkish economy, and how they caused a transformation in the tourism sector have been scrutinized. The negative effects created by the crises and pandemic on firms, employment, foreign exchange, interest rates have been addressed, and focus has been put on how these events affected the sector and how adaptation was achieved. The article contributes uniquely by examining more than a quarter-century under the influence of crises in the tourism sector. In this context, the effects of crises on Turkish tourism have been analytically evaluated, and recommendations have been presented in light of these findings.</p> N. Ceren TÜRKMEN Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The Importance of Traditional Winter Sports in Maintaining Our Concrete Cultural Heritage; Example of Kastamonu Ağlı Slogle (Kayık) Races <p>Culture is the totality of material and immaterial values created by human beings in the process of historical and social development. These values include both the tools used in their creation and the processes of transferring them to the next generations, and at the same time represent the measure of human sovereignty over the natural and social environment. The main purpose of this research is to emphasize the importance of tangible cultural heritage in terms of winter tourism and especially to evaluate the traditional sled races organized traditionally in Ağlı district of Kastamonu province as a traditional winter sports tourism product. In addition, this study aims to investigate the cultural elements that are disappearing over time and to examine how these elements can enrich the winter tourism product from a sustainability perspective. In this context, the cultural significance of traditional winter sports and the status of cultural elements in existing winter tourism products are the focal points of the study. When considering the role of cultural assets in winter tourism, this study provides an important context by covering the different objectives set out in the 2023 Tourism Strategy with the potential to relate and address these objectives together. In line with the results obtained, it is aimed to provide new suggestions on the evaluation of traditional winter sports and cultural elements, transforming them into a touristic product or using them as elements that enrich the winter tourism product in a way to contribute to the deficiencies in the literature. One of the factors that are effective in the emergence of sled races is that local people cannot engage in economic activities due to climatic and geographical conditions during the winter months, and in this process, they combine sports and entertainment as a social activity. This study is supported by field research data.</p> Hikmet HABERAL Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300