Araçsal Liderliğin İş Tatmini ve İşten Ayrılma Niyetine Etkisinde Örgütsel Güvenin Aracılık Rolü: Yiyecek-İçecek Çalışanları Üzerine Bir Araştırma (The Mediation Role of Organizational Trust in the Effect of Instrumental Leadership on Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention: A Research about Food-Beverage Employees)
Keywords:Instrumental leadership, Organizational trust, Job satisfaction, Turnover ıntention
The aim of this study is to examine the relationships between instrumental leadership, organizational trust, job satisfaction and turnover intention. The data were obtained from a total of 304 individuals working in food and beverage department from hotels in Antalya. Correlation and regression analysis were performed to test the relationships between variables and research hypotheses. The results reveal that instrumental leadership has a significant and negative impact on employee’s turnover intention and has significant and positive impacts on both job satisfaction and organizational trust. In addition, organizational trust; has a partial mediator role on the relationship between instrumental leadership and job satisfaction and also has a full mediator role on the relationship between instrumental leadership and turnover intention.
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The Mediation Role of Organizational Trust in the Effect of Instrumental Leadership on Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention: A Research about Food-Beverage Employees
Kastamonu University, Faculty of Tourism, Kastamonu /Turkey
Ankara Hacı Bayram Veli University, Faculty of Tourism, Ankara /Turkey
Gümüşhane University, Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences, Gümüşhane /Turkey
Leadership has a complex and very broad context in the management literature and there are different leadership styles in work environments. Leadership is both a field of research and a practical skill that encompasses the ability of an individual or organization to lead or guide other individuals, teams or entire businesses. Leadership, motivating followers and mobilizing resources to fulfill the organization's vision; innovation is also important and necessary for compliance and performance. Due to the uncertainty and competition inherent in globalization, trust plays an important role for organizations to survive and achieve their goals in the long run. Because trust has the effect of facilitating adaptation to new processes and ways of working. Trust between people and groups in organizations is a crucial component for the efficiency of the work environment, long-term stability in the organization, and the happiness and well-being of its members. Job satisfaction attitude is one of the most studied concepts by researchers and one of the concepts that employees and organizations want to be reached. Unsatisfied employees are likely to quit their jobs. Therefore, an understanding of employee job satisfaction and the variables that contribute to it is essential to the existence and development of any organization. Intention to leave is one of the concepts frequently discussed in the literature, just like job satisfaction. High labor turnover rate imposes high costs on organizations. For this reason, businesses carefully examine all factors that may lead to turnover in order to retain talented employees. In this context, the relationship between instrumental leadership, organizational trust, job satisfaction and turnover intention is the subject of the study.
The research hypotheses formed in the light of the relevant literature and assumptions are as follows:
H1: Instrumental leadership has a significant effect on organizational trust.
H2: Instrumental leadership has a significant effect on job satisfaction.
H3: Instrumental leadership has a significant effect on turnover intention.
H4: Organizational trust has a mediaton effect between instrumental leadership and job satisfaction.
H5: Organizational trust has a mediaton effect between instrumental leadership and turnover intention.
The study was conducted with 304 food-beverage workers of hotels carrying on a business in Antalya between May and June 2021. Participants 40.8% are men and 59.2% are women. The majority of the total participants are between the ages of 26-31 (32.6%) and 32-37 (28.2%). 55.3% of the participants are married and 44.7% are single. Majority of the total participants are high school (28.9%) and undergraduate (26.7%) graduates. 21.4% of them have a postgraduate degree. The majority of the participants have been working in their current organization for 1-5 years (46%). This is followed by those with a working period of 6-10 years with 28.3%.
Pearson's correlation analysis was done to find the relations among study concepts. Therefore, as a consequence of the analyses; a significant and positive relationship between “instrumental leadership” and organizational trust (r=0,80, p<0,01) and job satisfaction (r=0,54, p<0,01); a significant and negative relationship was found with intention to leave (r= -0,53, p<0,01). “Organizational trust”; has a significant and positive relationship with job satisfaction (r=0,58, p<0,01); a significant and negative relationship was determined with intention to leave (r = -0,62, p< 0,01). However, a significant and negative relationship was found between job satisfaction and intention to leave (r = -0,40, p<0,01).
Up to the findings of the regression analyses done using the simple and multiple linear regression analyses;
-In simple regression analysis, instrumental leadership was found to affect job satisfaction significantly and positively (β=0,54; p0,001). However, instrumental leadership appears to explain 28% of job satisfaction (R2 = 0,28).
-As a result of simple regression analysis, it was determined that instrumental leadership had a significant and positive effect on organizational trust (β=0,80; p0,001). However, instrumental leadership appears to explain 64% of organizational trust (R2 = 0,64).
-As a result of simple regression analysis, it was determined that organizational trust had a significant and positive effect on job satisfaction (β=0,58; p0,001). However, organizational trust appears to explain 34% (R20,34) of job satisfaction.
-When the mediating variable (organizational trust) is added to the model; the effect of the independent variable (instrumental leadership) on the dependent variable (job satisfaction) decreased from β=0,54 (p0,001) to β=0,20 (p0,05). These findings show that organizational trust has a partial mediation effect in the relationship between instrumental leadership and job satisfaction.
-With simple regression analysis, it was determined that instrumental leadership had a significant and negative effect on turnover intention (β=-0,53; p0,001). However, instrumental leadership appears to explain 28% of turnover intention (R2 =0,28).
-As a result of simple regression analysis, it was determined that organizational trust had a significant and negative effect on turnover intention (β=-0,62; p0,001). However, organizational trust seems to explain 39% of turnover intention (R2 =0,39).
-When the mediating variable (organizational trust) is added to the model; the effect of the independent variable (instrumental leadership) on the dependent variable (intention to leave the job) decreased from β=-0.53 (p0,001) to β=-0.09 (p0.05), and it also had a statistically significant effect, has lost. These findings show that organizational trust has a full mediation effect through relationship between instrumental leadership and intent to leave.
Therefore, all hypotheses were approved up to the findings of the regression analyses.
Employees are one of the most important factors in the success of hotel businesses. The competitiveness of these enterprises and their ability to compete are directly proportional to the quality of the services they provide. In this sense, hotels should both have trained staff who fulfill their roles effectively and retain their staff. For this reason, it is necessary to identify and solve the factors affecting the intention to leave the job in order to retain existing employees, ensure their satisfaction and meet their needs.
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