Coffeescape: A Scale for Measuring Coffee Shops Atmospherics


  • Savaş ARTUĞER



Coffeescape, Coffee shops, Atmospherics, Scale development, Starbucks


The purpose of this research is to develop a scale to measure atmospheric elements in coffee shops. In the study, the exploratory sequential design method was used. The universe of the research consists of people who visit Starbucks coffee shops in Besiktas in Istanbul. In the study, data were collected from 343 Starbucks customers for EFA and 335 Starbucks customers for DFA. As a result of the research, the COFFEESCAPE scale, which consists of 5 dimensions and 17 items and measures the atmospheric elements in coffee shops, has also been developed with proven validity and reliability. The dimensions of the scale emerged as layout, aesthetics, lighting, service staff and technology. The data collection process of this study for EFA and DFA coincided with the Covid-19 pandemic period and the Coffeescape scale’s first development phase may have caused deficiencies in the expressions for measuring the atmospheric elements in coffee shops. No other scale with proven validity and reliability that measures atmospheric elements in coffee shops has been found in the national or international literature. From this point of view, it is thought that this scale will make an important contribution to the literature.


Altman, J., Snyder, L. & Racioppi, D. (2014). Campaign Task: Starbucks Coffee Com-pany. Retrieved from (Accessed on 14.12.2020).

Alyakut, Ö. (2017). Kahve markalarının bütünleşik pazarlama iletişimi bağlamında sosyal medya kullanımları. Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 19(2), 209-234.

Arnold, S. J., Handelman, J. & Tigert, D. J. (1996). Organizational legitimacy and retail store patronage. Journal of Business Research, 35(3), 229-239.

Ayazlar, G. & Artuğer, S. (2015). Otel müşterileri için önemli olan atmosferik unsurların demografik özelliklere göre incelenmesi. Pamukkale Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 21, 25-33.

Aydın, C. (2011). Kahvehanelerin Kültürel Yaşamdaki Rolü. Kahraman, K. (Ed.) (2011). Tüm Zamanların Hatırına Sarayda Bir Fincan Kahve. İstanbul: TBMM Milli Saraylar Daire Başkanlığı Yayını, 81-89.

Bagozzi, R. P. & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16(1), 74–94.

Baker, J. (1987). The Role of The Environment in Marketing Services: The Consumer Perspective. Czepiel, J.A.,

Congram, C.A. & Shanahan, J. (Eds.) (1987). The Services Challenge: Integrating for Competitive Advantage. Chicago: American Marketing Association, 79-84.

Bateson, J.E.G. & Hoffman, K. D. (2001). Managing Services Marketing. USA: Thomson-South Western.

Berman, B., Evans, J. R. (1995). Retail Management: A Strategic Approach, 6th Edition, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Bitner, M.J. (1990). Evaluating Service Encounters: The Effects of Physical Surroundings and Employee Responses. Journal of Marketing, 54, 69–82.

Bitner, M.J. (1992). Servicescapes: The impact of physical surroundings on customers and employees. Journal f Marketing, 56, 57–71.

Boateng, G.O., Neilands, T. B., Frongillo, E. A., Melgar-Quinonez, H. & Young, S.L. (2018). Best practices for developing and validating scales for health, social, and behavioral research: A primer. Frontiers in Public Health, 6(149), 149–167.

Booms, B. H. & Bitner, M. J. (1982). Marketing services by managing the environment. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 23(1), 35-40.

Brown, A. T. (2006). Confirmatory Factor Analysis for Applied Research. London: The Guilford Press.

Bryant, F.B. ve Yarnold, P.R. (1995). Principal components analysis and exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Washington, DC: American Psychological As-sociation.

Chang, K. (2000). The impact of perceived physical environments on customers’ satisfaction and return intentions. Journal of Professional Services Marketing, 21(2), 75-85.

Churchill, G. A. (1979). A paradigm for developing better measures of marketing construct. Journal of Marketing Research, 16(1), 64-73.

Clark, L. A. & Watson, D. (1995). Constructing validity: Basic issues in objective scale development. Psychological Assessment, 7(3), 309-319.

Cowan, B.W., (2005). The Social Life of Coffee: The Emergence of the British Coffeehouse, Yale University Press, New Haven.

Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Devellis, R. F. (2003). Scale Development: Theory and Applications. Thousand Oaks: Sage. Donovan, R. J. & Rossiter, J. R. (1982). Store Atmosphere: An Environmental Psychol-ogy Approach. Journal of Retailing, 58, 34-57.

Etikan, I., Abubakar Musa, S. & Sunusi Alkassim, S. (2016). Comparison of convenience sampling and purposive sampling. American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics, 5 (1), 1-4.

Field, A. (2005). Discovering Statistics Using SPSS. London: Sage.

Fornell, C. & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(3), 39-50.

Gie Yong, A. & Pearce, S. (2013). A Beginner’s guide to factor analysis: Focusing on exploratory factor analysis. Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 9(2), 79-94.

Gürsoy, D. (2007). Sohbetin Bahanesi Kahvesi. İstanbul: Oğlak Yayınları.

Hair, J. F., Black, C. W., Babin, J. B. & Anderson, R. E. (2014). Multivariate Data Analysis. US: Pearson Education Limited.

Hair, J. F., Hult, M. T., Ringle, M. C. & Sarstedt, M. (2017). A Primer On Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (Pls-Sem. US: Sage Publications.

Han, H. & Ryu, K. (2009). The roles of the physical environment, price perception, and customer satisfaction in determining customer loyalty in the restaurant industry. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 33(4), 487-510.

Harris, L. C. & Ezeh, C. (2008). Servicescape and loyalty intentions: An empirical investigation. European Journal of Marketing, 42(3), 390-422.

Heise, U. (2001). Kahve ve Kahvehane (M. Tüzel, Çev.). Ankara: Dost Kitabevi.

Heung, V. C. & Gu, T. (2012). Influence of restaurant atmospherics on patron satisfaction and behavioral intentions.International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(4), 1167-1177.

Hui, M. K., & Bateson, J. E. G., (1991). Perceived Control and the Effects of Crowding and Consumer Choice on the Service Experience. Journal of Consumer Research, vol. 18, September, 174-184.

Jang. S. S.& Namkung, Y. (2009). Perceived Quality, Emotions, and Behavioral Inten-tions: Application of an Extended Mehrabian-Russell Model to Restaurants. Journal of Business Research, 62, 451-460.

Kline, B. R. (2016). Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling. New York: Guildford Press.

Kotler, P. (1973-1974). Atmospherics as a marketing tool. Journal of Retailing, 49(4), 48-64.

Liu, Y. & Jang, S. (2009). The Effects of Dining Atmospherics: An Extended Mehrabi-an–Russell Model, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 28 (4): 494–503.

Mattila, A. S. ve Wirtz, J. (2001). Congruency of Scent and Music as a Driver of In- Store Evaluations and Behavior. Journal of Retailing, 77 (2), 273-289.

Mehrabian, A. & Russell, J. A. (1974). An Approach to Environmental Psychology. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Milliman, R. E. & Fugate, D. L. (1993). Atmospherics as an emerging influence in the design of exchange environments. Journal of Marketing Management, 3 (1), 435-459.

Morgado, F.F.R., Meireles, J.F.F., Neves, C.M., Amaral, A.C.S. & Ferreira, M.E.C. (2017). Scale development: Ten main limitations and recommendations to improve future research practices. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 30(3), 1-20.

Myers, D. N., Ahn, S. & Jin, Y. (2011). Sample size and power estimates for a confirmatory factor analytic model in exercise and sport: A Monte Carlo approach. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 82(3), 412-423.

Raajpoot, N.A. (2002). TANGSERV: A multiple item scale for measuring tangible quality in foodservice industry. Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 5, 109–127.

Roy, A. & Tai, S. T. C. (2003). Store environment and shopping behaviour: The role of imagery elaboration and shopping orientation. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 15(3), 71-99.

Russell, J. A. & Pratt, G. (1980). A Description of the affective quality attributed to environments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38 (2), 311–322.

Ryu, K. & Han, H. (2011). New or repeat customers: How does physical environment influence their restaurant experience? International Journal of Hospitality Management, 30, 599-611.

Ryu, K. & Jang, S. S. (2007). The effect of environmental perceptions on behavioral intentions through emotions: The case of upscale restaurants. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 31(1), 56-72.

Ryu, K. & Jang, S. S. (2008). DINESCAPE: A scale for customers’ perception of dining environments. Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 11(1), 2-22.

Sami, K. (2010). Halk kültürü bağlamında kahvehanelerin toplumsal ve mekansal dönüşümleri Diyarbakır kent örneği. Milli Folklar Dergisi, 85,159-172.

Sapsford, R. & Jupp, V. (1996). Data Collection and Analysis. London: Sage Publications.

Sayımer, Ġ. & Uran, A. B. (2014). Pazarlama Iletişiminde Sanal Ortam Temsilleri: Küresel Kahve Markalarının Web Sitesi ve Sosyal Medya Kullanımları Üzerine Bir Araştırma. Akça, E.B. (ed.) (2014). Yeni Medya Yeni Pratikler Yeni Olanaklar. Kocaeli: Umuttepe Yayınları, 292-302.

Schermelleh-Engel, K., Moosbrugger, H. & Muller, H. (2003). Evaluating the fit structural equation models: tests of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of Psychological Research Online, 8(2), 23-74.

Sherman, E., Mathur, A., & Smith, R. B., (1997). Store Environment and Consumer Purchase Behavior: Mediating Role of Consumer Emotions. Psychology & Marketing, vol. 14, no 4, 361-378.

Shostack, G. L. (1977). Breaking free from product marketing. Journal of Marketing, 41(2), 73-80.

Starbucks, (2021). Retrieved from (Accessed on 10.08.2021).

Starbucks, (2022). Retrieved from (Accessed on 10.08.2022).

Statista, (2022). Retrieved from (Accessed on 10.10.2022).

Tabachnick, B. G. & Fidell, L. (2013). Using Multivariate Statistics. New Jersey: Pearson.

Tombs, A. & McColl-Kennedy, J. R. (2003). Social-servicescape conceptual model. Marketing Theory, 3(4), 447-475.

Turley, L.W. & Milliman, R.E. (2000). Atmospheric effects on shopping behavior: A review of the experimental evidence. Journal of Business Research, 49, 193–211.

Ulusoy, A. & Şeker, M. (2013). Türkiye’de Değişen Çay Tüketim Alışkanlıkları Araştırması. Retrieved from (Accessed on 10.10.2019).

Van Vlient, H. (2018). The Measurement of Atmospherics. Deventer: Plan B Publishers.

Wakefield, K.L. & Blodgett, J.G. (1999). Customer response to intangible and tangible service factors. Psychology and Marketing, 16 (1), 51-68.

Waxman, L. (2006). The coffee shop: Social and physical factors influencing place attachment. Journal of Interior Design, 31(3), 35-53.

Weinrach, J. (2000). Environmental psychology: Why should we care? Environmental Quality Management, 10 (2), 83-86.

Zeithaml, V. A., Parasuraman, A. & Berry, L. (1985). Problems and strategies in services marketing. Journal of Marketing, 49(2), 33-46.



How to Cite

KILINÇ ŞAHİN , S. ., & ARTUĞER , S. . (2023). Coffeescape: A Scale for Measuring Coffee Shops Atmospherics. Journal of Tourism & Gastronomy Studies, 11(1), 144–160.